Now You Know: What are some popular “petroleum based” made products?

non-renewable energy nationalgeographic.org
“..
Once the oil has been drilled, it must be refined. Oil contains many chemicals besides carbon, and refining the oil takes some of these chemicals out.

We use oil for many things. About half of the world’s petroleum is converted into gasoline. The rest can be processed and used in liquid products such as nail polish and rubbing alcohol, or solid products such as water pipes, shoes, crayons, roofing, vitamin capsules, and thousands of other items.
..”

Everyday Petroleum-based Products


“Published on Oct 2, 2013

Did you know that last year 36% of our energy consumption came from petroleum? What petroleum-based items do we use on a daily basis? Sneakers, bubblegum, bath soap and sweaters? These are only a few things made from petroleum. Watch this video and find out more!”
In the video above, some “renewable energy” sources are “dependent” on petroleum ..

-Wind Turbines

Can You Make a Wind Turbine Without Fossil Fuels? February 25, 2014 by Robert Wilson theenergycollective.com
“..The current feasibility of 100% renewable energy is easily tested by asking a simple question. Can you build a wind turbine without fossil fuels? If the machines that will deliver 100% renewable energy cannot be made without fossil fuels, then quite obviously we cannot get 100% renewable energy…

What is it made of? Lots of steel, concrete and advanced plastic. Material requirements of a modern wind turbine have been reviewed by the United States Geological Survey. On average 1 MW of wind capacity requires 103 tonnes of stainless steel, 402 tonnes of concrete, 6.8 tonnes of fiberglass, 3 tonnes of copper and 20 tonnes of cast iron. The elegant blades are made of fiberglass, the skyscraper sized tower of steel, and the base of concrete…

However I will note at the outset that the requirement for fiberglass means that a wind turbine cannot currently be made without the extraction of oil and natural gas, because fiberglass is without exception produced from petrochemicals…

Now, none of this is to argue against wind turbines, it is simply arguing against over-promising what can be achieved. It also should be pointed out that we cannot build a nuclear power plant, or any piece of large infrastrtucture for that matter, without concrete or steel. A future entirely without fossil fuels may be desirable, but currently it is not achievable. Expectations must be set accordingly.”

The Solar Power Paradox: Alternative Energy Can’t Run on Oil .. altenergymag.com
“…As demand for alternative energy increases and green technologies progress at an unprecedented rate, the solar industry has undoubtedly taken massive strides toward making the world a greener place. Global photovoltaic (PV) production is currently the world’s fastest-growing energy technology – doubling every two years by an average of 48 percent per year. However, the reality remains that the manufacture of PV solar modules (like many green renewable energy sources) is heavily petroleum dependent, presenting a fundamental contradiction in the green energy movement…”

Products Made from Oil and Natural Gas .oilandgasinfo.ca
“..
Products Made from Oil and Natural Gas

What’s the first thing that comes to mind when you think about something made from petroleum? Gasoline, probably. Or maybe plastic bags. But there are actually thousands of products made from crude oil and natural gas!

Even if you don’t drive a car or carry your groceries home in plastic bags, you still use dozens – or even hundreds – of petroleum-based products every day.

Click a group of products below to see for yourself. It’s amazing what oil and natural gas become…”

Action:

Comfort comes with a cost
Convenience comes with a cost

List of Ways to Reduce the Use of Fossil Fuels education.seattlepi.com
“..Nearly 85 percent of the U.S. energy supply comes from fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and oil. Fossil fuels take millions of years to form and are thus considered to be nonrenewable. Higher energy demands and poor efficiency practices have increased fossil fuel usage, and it’s now critical to find alternative means of energy generation before depleting the global supply. It takes individual and community actions to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels…”
Reducing Dependency on Fossil Fuels April 29, 2010• Fossil Fuels• by EconomyWatch economywatch.com
“..Reducing dependency on fossil fuels is a major challenge for most economically advanced countries of the world as there is a very important link between the usage of fossil fuels and the economic conditions of individual.

One of the major reasons behind the increasing demand to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels is the fact that they are expected to run out at a certain point of time in the future. This is where sustainable energy is expected to be useful as it would last longer than any other form of fuel source…”

Investing in a Clean Energy Future: Reducing Dependence on Foreign Oil (2012)


“..Published on Apr 9, 2012

http://thefilmarchive.org/

March 10, 2012..”

Learned anything new? What “action” can we take now ? How can we decrease the “dependence” of fossil fuels? Consume less?

Good News Education
https://www.facebook.com/groups/707482649266495/

Deep Thought: Should we “divest” or “not” in banks that funds “oil” projects ?

The Big Banks Are Corrupt — and Getting Worse
05/22/2015 12:15 am ET | Updated May 22, 2016 huffingtonpost.com
“..According to the report, “Nearly one-third of respondents (32%) believe compensation structures or bonus plans in place at their company could incentivize employees to compromise ethics or violate the law. “

In fact, bankers’ bonuses do incentivize unethical and criminal behavior – and anything else it takes to generate profits. “Clawbacks” for ill-gotten gains are still few and far between. Remarkably few bankers have been fired for the widespread fraud that continues to characterize their industry. Prosecution for criminal behavior is extremely rare.

A system which rewards antisocial behavior begets social tragedy. It’s also a law enforcement nightmare. Criminology teaches that the presence of reward for criminal behavior, along with the absence of deterrence, almost inevitably leads to more crime…”

Top 10 Corporate Criminals List globalexchange.org

“…Global Exchange has compiled a new list of “most wanted” corporations of 2016 based on issues like unlivable working conditions, low pay, violations of human right and voting rights; climate change denial, and environmental destruction, just to name a few.

Four corporations, Koch Industries, McDonald’s, Chevron and Monsanto were on earlier lists but are included again, as the corporate behavior of these companies has reached egregious levels this year and merits repeat attention.

The Ten Top Corporate Criminals list is a guide to what companies like Energy Transfer Partners, Exxon Mobil, H&M and others are doing to undermine human rights and the environment. Share the list with friends, family, and co-workers. Use the Take Action section to add your voice and increase the pressure…

1. Energy Transfer Partners

..The pipeline is supposed to stretch from North Dakota to a market hub in Illinois, and from there another pipeline is to ship the oil to the gulf coast for Asian export. It would deliver up to 570,000 barrels of what the company calls its “light, sweet crude,” fracked in North Dakota’s Bakken and Three Forks fields.

The pipeline is to cross 209 rivers, creeks and tributaries, including the nations longest river, the Missouri, which is the Standing Rock Sioux tribe’s main source of drinking and irrigation water. It will also destroy tribal burial grounds and sacred sites.

The Bakken Pipeline Resistance Coalition representing farmers, ranchers, environmentalists, student and local community organizations along the pipeline route as well as nationwide, has been fighting the pipeline since late 2014. On August 25, just days before the September 3rd assault, more than 30 national and tribal environmental organizations had joined together to write President Obama a letter calling on President Obama to stop the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline. And on September 9, minutes after a federal judge declined the Tribe’s request for an injunction to stop construction on the pipeline, the Obama administration made a surprise announcement that it would not permit the project to continue for now. Continued action is essential to keep the pipeline from being built…”

Pipelines

-Funding

Defund DAPL: Divest from banks funding the pipeline


“Published on Nov 17, 2016

Lakota People’s Law Project is calling on individuals and organizations to divest from banks funding the Dakota Access Pipeline. Sign our petition at http://lakotalaw.org/pipeline-action
Check out our DAPL Timeline at http://lakotalaw.org/oceti-sakowin-camp.

Who’s Financially Supporting it?

38 banks are directly supporting the companies building the pipeline, totaling $10.25 billion in loans and credit facilities. These banks are increasing our dependence on fossil fuels.

Energy Transfer Family:

Sunoco Logistics: ($2.5 billion revolving credit from 24 banks) (provides transportation, terminalling and acquisition and marketing services to crude oil markets. Energy Transfer Partnership owns a 99.9% interest in Sunoco Partners LLC.)

Energy Transfer Partners: ($3.75 billion revolving credit from 26 banks, going toward expanding oil and gas infrastructure holdings)

Energy Transfer Equity: ($1.5 billion revolving credit from 26 banks) (a sister partnership to Energy Transfer Partners)

Dakota Access: ($2.5 billion project-level loans by 17 banks for construction of pipeline) (subsidiary of Energy Transfer Crude Oil Company, which is part of the Energy Transfer Company)

List of banks:

RSA ANIMATE: Crises of Capitalism


“Uploaded on Jun 28, 2010

In this RSA Animate, celebrated academic David Harvey looks beyond capitalism towards a new social order. Can we find a more responsible, just, and humane economic system?

The RSA is a 258 year-old charity devoted to creating social progress and spreading world-changing ideas. For more information about our research, RSA Animates, free events programme and 27,000 strong fellowship.

Follow the RSA on Twitter: https://twitter.com/RSAEvents
Like the RSA on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/rsaeventsoff…
Listen to RSA podcasts: https://soundcloud.com/the_rsa
See RSA Events behind the scenes: https://instagram.com/rsa_events/

——
Produced and edited by Abi Stephenson, RSA.

Animation by Cognitive Media. Andrew Park, the mastermind behind the Animate series and everyone’s favourite hairy hand, discusses their appeal and success in his blog post, ‘Talk to the hand’: http://www.thersa.org/talk-to-the-hand/”

Bank of Nova Scotia: $100 million (Sunoco Logistics)

Citizens Bank: $72.5 million (Sunoco Logistics)

Comerica Bank: $72.5 million (Sunoco Logistics)

US Bank: $275 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners)

PNC Bank: $270 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Barclays: $370.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

JP Morgan Chase: $312.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Bank of America: $350.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Deutsche Bank: $275.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Compass Bank: $340.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Credit Suisse: $340.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

DNB Capital/ASA: $340.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Sumitomo Mitsui Bank: $265.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Royal Bank of Canada: $340.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

UBS: $336.4 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Goldman Sachs: $243.9 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Morgan Stanley: $225.1 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Community Trust: $30 million (Energy Transfer Partners)

HSBC Bank: $189 million (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Wells Fargo: $467 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

BNP Paribas: $444.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

SunTrust: $435 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

Royal Bank of Scotland: $250.5 million (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity)

Bank of Tokyo Mitsubishi UFJ: $548 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

Mizuho Bank: $589.5 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

Citibank: $521.8 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

TD Securities: $365 million (Sunoco Logistics) (Dakota Access)

ABN Amro Capital: $45 million (Energy Transfer Equity)

Credit Agricole: $344.5 million (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

Intesa Sanpaolo: $339 million (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

ING Bank: $248.3 milllion (Energy Transfer Partners) (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

Natixis: $180 million (Energy Transfer Equity) (Dakota Access)

BayernLB: $120 million (Dakota Access)

BBVA Securities: $120 million (Dakota Access)

DNB First Bank: $120 million (Dakota Access)

ICBC London: $120 million (Dakota Access)

SMBC Nikko Securities: $120 million (Dakota Access)

Societe Generale: $120 million (Dakota Access)”

-Divesting effective?

How to Contact the 17 Banks Funding the Dakota Access Pipeline Emily Fuller posted Sep 29, 2016 Updated Nov. 30, 2016 yesmagazine.org
Here are CEO names, emails, and phone numbers—because banks have choices when it comes to what projects they give loans to.
“..Food & Water Watch researcher Hugh MacMillan: “Ask these banks to clarify whether funds they are providing are being used, in any amount, to pay for the heavily militarized response to the Standing Rock Sioux, including the attack dogs, sound-cannon trucks, heavily armed officers.”

“People should also ask these institutions why they are sinking so much money into maximizing the amounts of oil and gas that can be brought to the surface and burned at a time when climate science is clear we have to maximize what we keep in the ground instead,” said MacMillan.

The organization’s deputy communications director, Seth Gladstone, suggests saying: “As a customer of your financial institution, I reject the notion of my money helping to support your investment in the Dakota Access pipeline, an inherently dangerous and unjust oil pipeline that threatens air and water quality in many states, and violates sacred lands of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe. I urge you to give up your financial stake in the Dakota Access pipeline immediately.”

Here are names of CEOs and other bank executives involved in these decisions—along with their phone numbers and email addresses. The first 17 banks (*) are directly funding the Dakota Access pipeline. The rest of these banks are offering credit lines to its parent companies: Sunoco Logistics, Energy Transfer Partners, and Energy Transfer Equity.

The following bank information has been updated periodically, most recently Nov. 30, 2016. Some banks have disconnected phones and disabled email addresses since the start of the campaign. Contact us with adjustments..”

Wells Fargo*

CEO Timothy J. Sloan
timothy.j.sloan@wellsfargo.com
BoardCommunications@wellsfargo.com
866-249-3302

Corporate Office:
Wells Fargo
420 Montgomery Street
San Francisco, CA 94104


*pic of their hq’s in Minnesota

U.S. Bank

Chairman and CEO Richard K. Davis
richard.davis@usbank.com

Senior Vice President of Corporate Communications Dana Ripley
dana.ripley@usbank.com
612-303-3167

Brand, Corporate Social Responsibility, Sponsorships:
Susan Beatty
susan.beatty@usbank.com
612-303-9229

Corporate Office:
U.S. Bancorp Center
800 Nicollet Mall
Minneapolis, MN 55402
800-685-5065 and 651-466-3000

An Open Letter To Investors In The Dakota Access Pipeline November 29th, 2016 by Susanna Schick cleantechnica.com
“..While Norwegian investors pull out because the DAPL does not meet their Corporate Social Responsibility requirements, and Energy Transfer Partners sells its company to Sunoco to better compete against Russia, I would like to propose that all investors pull their funds from this project, as there are other energy projects with a much higher ROI that actually build a stronger US economy. I am addressing Goldman Sachs because of its stated commitment to environmental stewardship and its long track record of successful investments.

Dear Mr. Blankfein,

As one of the best investment banks in the world, Goldman Sachs’ job is to keep one foot firmly planted in the future. The oil industry is dying, and “energy” companies that refuse to expand into other forms of energy will die along with it. Do you wish you’d invested in a film camera company 15 years ago? This is the same situation, but with a much bigger industry.

As a journalist covering clean tech, I’ve seen the future, and it’s electric. This was never more clear than on October 28th, when Tesla announced its Powerpack 2 batteries, grid-scale batteries twice as energy dense at the same price. Customers like SoCal Edison will install them next month to decrease their dependency on natural gas, the main commodity ETP offers. The same commodity which recently caused the biggest methane leak ever in the US…”

DeFund DAPL: Crashing JP Morgan Party in NYC (12/15/2016)


“Published on Dec 15, 2016

#DeFundDAPL #BankExit #NoDAPL DeFund DAPL is Live in New York City Crashing a JP Morgan Party…join the movement: http://www.defunddapl.org/ Check out DeFund DAPL on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/DeFundDAPL/”
Major Victory! One of the Largest Banks Funding DAPL Just Pulled Its Assets from the Project Claire Bernish November 18, 2016 thefreethoughtproject.com
“Water protectors from the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe can now declare their most tangible victory to date — one of the heftiest investors in the Dakota Access Pipeline, Norway’s largest bank, has pulled its assets from the project.

Just 10 days ago, DNB warned it might withdraw funding for construction of the contentious pipeline if concerns raised by the Standing Rock Sioux were not addressed promptly…

“The news that DNB has sold its assets and is considering terminating its loans is a victory for the water protectors who are fighting to stop this disaster of a project. All financial institutions with a stake in the pipeline must quickly realize that financing this project is toxic. It would be smart for them to get out ahead of the growing movement of customers looking to divest from banks that finance the destruction of our planet and ignore Indigenous rights and sovereignty. Citigroup, TD Securities, Wells Fargo, SunTrust, and the other banks backing this project should see this as a sign to get on the right side of history…”
Financing Dakota Access Pipeline puts US bank in more hot water Frank Hopper • December 13, 2016 indiancountrymedianetwork.com
“…Under the proposed legislation the city’s current contract with Wells Fargo, which ends in one year, on December 31, 2017, would not be renewed. In the meantime, the city would “enter into a voluntary debarment agreement with Wells Fargo Bank for a period of at least one year, and refrain from conducting banking, investment, or other business with Wells Fargo Bank for a period of at least one year when it is in the City’s discretion.”..

Why Wells Fargo?

While many different banks are financing the Dakota Access Pipeline, research by Food & Water Watch identifies 17 banks as loaning directly to Dakota Access LLC. Most are located in other countries such as France, Japan, the Netherlands, Canada, Italy, Germany, England and Spain. Of those located in the U.S., only two are large with many branch offices: Wells Fargo and Citibank. Wells Fargo is being targeted because it is the most visible of the U.S. banks financing the pipeline, loaning close to $500 million for its construction.

Additionally, federal regulators recently revealed a scandal involving Wells Fargo employees who opened over 2 million unauthorized bank and credit card accounts in the names of customers, apparently to hit sales targets and make money on fees. Approximately 5,300 Wells Fargo employees have been fired.

And if that weren’t reason enough, in 2012 the U.S. Department of Justice forced Wells Fargo to pay $175 million after it was determined they engaged in discriminatory lending practices against black and Hispanic borrowers…”
How Standing Rock’s Divest Campaign Can Stop Future Pipelines
By Colby Devitt | December 19, 2016 billmoyers.com
As banks begin to respond, environmental movements are learning the importance of speaking clearly about the financial risks of fossil fuel investment.
Between Now and Trump, We Must #DefundDAPL December 16, 2016 gofossilfree.org
“…On December 4th, the Obama Administration announced that it will not grant Energy Transfer Partners the final permit for the Dakota Access Pipeline to drill under the Missouri River, and called for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on the project. This milestone is a testament to the amazing movement that indigenous leadership and the camps at Standing Rock have led, and has re-defined what is possible when thousands of people come together to peacefully resist.

But the fight to stop Dakota Access isn’t over — and right now, before Trump comes into office, is a critical moment.

We can’t say for certain what will happen when Trump’s in office, and we don’t know how an attempt to reverse this decision will play out in the courts – so right now it’s crucial that we use another source of our strength to stop this project: our financial power and collective pressure.

The divestment movement has already shown the power of moving our money and rejecting the social license of the fossil fuel industry. Just this week, it was announced that total assets committed to divest surpass $5 trillion. Now we need to turn that power and momentum to Dakota Access.

The Dakota Access pipeline is being financed in various ways by 17 banks (here’s a list with contact info for each). ..”

-Japan

「日本の大手銀行:人権侵害と環境破壊に配慮し、DAPLへの資金提供を打ち切ってください!」に関するお願い


“Published on Dec 19, 2016

日本語で署名をご覧になるには
https://www.change.org/japan-stands-w…

For English petition please click
https://www.change.org/p/japanese-big…

詳しいは/More information
http://aaexchangeactivity.blogspot.jp…

Petition endorsement: Japanese Big Banks: Stop funding human and environmental rights abuses at DAPL now!
PDFはこちらです。PDF here.
https://drive.google.com/open?id=0B7v…”

-Australia

Protestors rally in Auckland against ANZ’s investment in fossil fuels video TAO LIN Last updated 14:43, May 4 2016 stuff.co.nz
“..Climate change activists have kicked off a global campaign against fossil fuels by throwing a beach dance party outside one of ANZ’s Auckland offices.

The Break Free campaign targets fossil fuel projects around the world through demonstrations with the aim of keeping coal, oil and gas in the ground.

350 Aotearoa, the New Zealand arm of an international climate movement, is behind the protests and is targeting ANZ for its “heavy investment” in fossil fuels…”

Where to Invest?

Is Your Bank Funding DAPL? Here’s How to Find One That Isn’t Gerald Mitchell posted Dec 01, 2016 yesmagazine.org
There’s an entire industry of ethically minded banks and financial institutions out there to choose from.
“..Every day in December has been declared a day of action for those protecting sacred ground and water from the construction of the Dakota Access pipeline. While most of us can’t be there in person, a growing number of supporters are taking action by breaking up with banks that are funding the pipeline. As an act of solidarity with the water protectors at Standing Rock, this also helps put pressure on the banks to change their practices now and in the future. But closing your megabank account raises the question: Where should I move my money?

Luckily, there’s an entire industry of ethically minded banks and financial institutions out there to choose from. While they aren’t always guaranteed to have a clean environmental record, they do invest locally and in underserved areas. And they are also almost certainly not funding DAPL and trampling on indigenous sovereignty…”
Ethical Banks moveyourmoney.org.uk

Oil Industries that are “unethnical”?

The 12 Least Ethical Companies In The World: Covalence’s Ranking … 03/30/2010 05:12 am ET | Updated May 25, 2011 huffingtonpost.com

“…Among those companies with the most awful records are some of the usual suspects in the oil and mining industries but Covalence also found some lesser-known offenders….

#10 Total SA
French oil and gas company Total has been accused of building a pipeline with the aid of slave labor in Myanmar. In addition, in 1999 one of the company’s oil tankers, the Erika, which had 30,000 tons of oil on board, sunk off of the coast of Brittany. A French court later asked the company to compensate the victims of the spill…

#6 Occidental Petroleum Corporation
Occidental, one of America’s largest oil and gas companies, has been involved in a number of territory disputes in multiple countries, including Ecuador and Colombia. The company also drew ire from environmentalists in 2005, when it proposed building a road through Ecuador’s Yasuní National Park.

..”

10
of
13
#3 Chevron Corp.
Chevron, the oil and gas behemoth, has been accused of tax evasion as well a number of environmental infractions in several countries around the world. But perhaps most controversial was a 1998 episode in Nigeria: after protesters took hostages as part of a demonstration against the company, Nigerian soldiers shot at the demonstrators, killing two. Chevron was accused of facilitating the transport of the soldiers, known for their “general history of committing abuses,” to the scene. The company, however, was cleared of the charges in 2008…

#2 Halliburton Company
After the invasion of Iraq in 2003, Halliburton, the oil and gas company famously associated with former Vice President Dick Cheney, was accused of unfairly procuring billions of dollars in government contracts for oil repair in the country.

Currently still re”searching” on this controversial issue. Feel free to share any info. Any other newsworthy items that needs to be told?

Good News USA
https://www.facebook.com/groups/141726762684036/?ref=br_tf

Now you know: History of Oil

Extreme Oil . The History | PBS pbs.org
“..The early days of oil were nearly the opposite of today in that the supply was almost infinitely greater than the demand. Formed millions of years ago, oil remained beneath the earth, largely untapped, until relatively recently. For thousands of years, humans utilized oil as a lubricant, adhesive, and many other purposes — including for medicinal use. But through the early 19th century, large-scale production and use of oil was unknown.

Through the early 19th century, large-scale production and use of oil was unknown.

Yet this changed quickly as oil wells sprang up across the United States in the late 19th century; such discoveries were paralleled by scientific developments that found more and more uses for petroleum products in an assortment of industries. Oil refining became the keystone to the empire of Standard Oil, and gasoline-powered vehicles changed travel, warfare, and countless other aspects of 20th-century life.

Inevitably, issues related to the global oil supply — and access to it — have come to the fore. Oil is now a key player in the ever-overlapping realms of technology, business, and geopolitics. The future is uncertain, but one can always hope to learn from the past.
..”

History of the World Petroleum Industry (Key Dates) geohelp.net

HISTORY OF OIL – Part 1


“Uploaded on May 15, 2010

This is part 1 of 5 part series of videos from a documentary called The History Of Oil. All parts combined is about 45 minutes total video viewing.
Watch part 2 here: https://youtu.be/9TfRH-atfLQ?list=PLk…

Part 2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9TfRH…

Part 3: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WDkvh…

Part 4: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJDac…

Part 5: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WtNtl….”

A Town Named Pithole roadsideamerica.com
“..In early 1865, oil was struck at the base of a wooded hillside in Western Pennsylvania. Within nine months there were 15,000 fortune-seekers on that hillside, and the woods had been replaced by a small city named Pithole. It was named after nearby Pithole Creek, which was named after a nearby stinking crack in the ground that was generally assumed to be a portal to hell. That pithole is still here, although it’s off-limits on private property. Pithole the city, however, has vanished. The price of oil dropped to $4.50 a barrel, the hoped-for underground ocean of oil turned out to be more like a puddle, the fortune-seekers left, and the buildings were burned down or broken up for scrap. Trees once again cover the hillside. ..”

John D. Rockefeller Biography biography.com
Famous Business Leaders, Entrepreneur, CEO (1839–1937)
“John D. Rockefeller was the head of the Standard Oil Company and one of the world’s richest men. He used his fortune to fund ongoing philanthropic causes.”

Our History of Petroleum Use Posted on Dec 30 2010 by Alex Wilson greenbuildingadvisor.com
“..While most of us think of the petroleum age starting in the late 1850s, when North America’s first oil well began gushing oil, human use of petroleum actually goes back much further.

Asphalt, a heavy constituent of petroleum (see last week’s blog), was used four thousand years ago in constructing the walls of Babylon. During the Roman era, oil was collected and used in the province of Dacia (now Romania), where it was referred to as “picula.”

Fourth-century oil wells in China

The first oil wells are believed to have been drilled in China around 350 AD; these wells were drilled using bits attached to bamboo poles and extending as deep as 800 feet. That oil was burned to evaporate brine to produce salt. By the 10th Century the Chinese even built bamboo pipelines to transport oil from those wells to salt springs where the brine was collected.

In Japan, petroleum was used for lighting at least as far back as the 7th century. Baghdad’s first streets were paved with asphalt. Marco Polo described oil fields in what is now Azerbaijan, where naphtha was produced. And in the 9th century, petroleum was distilled by the Persian alchemist Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi into kerosene that was used in lamps.

The first North American reference to petroleum was in 1595 when Sir Walter Raleigh wrote about Pitch Lake on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. With a surface area of about 100 acres and a depth as great as 250 feet, this is the world’s largest natural deposit of asphalt; it is a significant tourist attraction, and asphalt from this deposit has long been exported — some was used in early paving of some New York City streets.

Oil Rigs

Oig Rig “The World’s Largest Oil Rig” – Big Bigger Biggest| National Geographic documentary HD


“..Published on Dec 1, 2015

Oig Rig “The World’s Largest Oil Rig” – Big Bigger Biggest| National Geographic documentary
This film reveals the technological leaps forward that have allowed the world’s largest Oil Platform – the Perdido Spar in the Gulf of Mexico – to be built. The Perdido Spar sits in deeper water than any other oil platform, in an ocean over 2 kilometres deep. This floating factory is capable of drilling in any direction, and in depths of up to 3 kilometres below the sea floor. At maximum production it can generate enough oil daily to fill 132,000 cars with petrol. This film explores how this groundbreaking structure was made possible through a series of six engineering breakthroughs. The film explores how six landmark oil platforms – including the Beryl Alpha platform – each feature a major technological innovation that allowed oil platforms to be built and survive in ever deeper waters. Using high-end computer generated imagery that makes up 50% of the film, this film reveals the incredible stories behind these structures and the inventions that have driven them deeper. Six ingenious leaps forward that enabled oil platforms to evolve …from BIG to BIGGER into the World’s BIGGEST..”

-Deadliest Disaster

Deadliest Accidents oilrigdisasters.co.uk

Oil Industry

Oil Industry history.com
Oil, the Hamill Brothers and Spindletop</a?
History of America history.co.uk
“.. They start again but the walls keep collapsing in because the sand is too fine. They need a thicker liquid. So, using only the materials on hand, water, dirt, and cows, they make a small herd of cattle stomp in a small pool. This makes mud. They then inject the mud down and it’s this that holds up the walls.

“From then on we operated the rig for 24 hours a day”

10 January 1901
The Hamills have been drilling for over two months. They’ve gone past 330ms. Another 30, and they’ll have to quit. They hear a bubbling. Oil that’s been contained for 160 million years shoots up in a geyser 60m high.

The Hamills had been hoping for 50 barrels a day. They’ll soon be pumping out over 80,000. Overnight the backers of the rig are nearly $40m richer. Oil production increase 50% and within a year 500 oil companies are born, such as Texaco and Golf, The price of oil plummets from $2 a barrel to 3 cents. It’s cheaper than water and cheap enough to turn into petrol. At the turn of the century, millions of Americans work within 30km of their home petrol makes them mobile…”

Land Pipelines

Pipeline Accident Reports ntsb.gov

Wars Fought Over Oil

Standing Rock Legal Update 2 of 3 090617

The Bush Administration’s Top 40 Lies about War and Terrorism Bring ’em On! by Steve Perry Published on
Wednesday, July 30, 2003 by the Minneapolis City Pagescommondreams.org
‘..The Bush administration’s foreign policy plan was not based on September 11, or terrorism; those events only brought to the forefront a radical plan for U.S. control of the post-Cold War world that had been taking shape since the closing days of the first Bush presidency. Back then a small claque of planners, led by Wolfowitz, generated a draft document known as Defense Planning Guidance, which envisioned a U.S. that took advantage of its lone-superpower status to consolidate American control of the world both militarily and economically, to the point where no other nation could ever reasonably hope to challenge the U.S. Toward that end it envisioned what we now call “preemptive” wars waged to reset the geopolitical table.

After a copy of DPG was leaked to the New York Times, subsequent drafts were rendered a little less frank, but the basic idea never changed. In 1997 Wolfowitz and his true believers–Richard Perle, William Kristol, Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld–formed an organization called Project for the New American Century to carry their cause forward. And though they all flocked around the Bush administration from the start, W never really embraced their plan until the events of September 11 left him casting around for a foreign policy plan.

2) The invasion of Iraq was based on a reasonable belief that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction that posed a threat to the U.S., a belief supported by available intelligence evidence.

Paul Wolfowitz admitted to Vanity Fair that weapons of mass destruction were not really the main reason for invading Iraq: ..”

George HW Bush and the End of the Cold War: Crash … – YouTube
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L-K19rVDxoM
“..In which John Green teaches you about the end of the Cold War and the presidency of George H.W. Bush. It was neither the best of times, nor the worst of times. On the domestic front, the first president Bush inherited the relative prosperity of the later Reagan years, and watched that prosperity evaporate. That was about all the interest Bush 41 had, domestically, so let’s move to foreign policy, which was a bigger deal at this time. The biggie was the end of the Cold War, which is the title of the video, so you know it’s important. The collapse of the Soviet Union was the biggest deal of Bush’s term, and history has assigned the credit to Ronald Reagan. We give the guy a break, and say that he helped. He was certainly expert in foreign policy, having been and envoy to China, ambassador to the United Nations, and head of the CIA. Bush also oversaw the first Gulf War, which was something of a success, in that the primary mission was accomplished, and the vast majority of the troops were home in short order. It didn’t do much to address some of the other problems in the region, but we’ll get to that in the next few weeks. Along with all this, you’ll learn about Bush’s actions, or lack thereof, in Somalia and the Balkans, and you’ll even be given an opportunity to read Bush’s lips…”

First Gulf War | 3 Minute History


*see Neutral Perspective: Iraq War was justified or not? youtube.com

The truth behind the 1991 Gulf War invasion

*fake pics of military tanks along Kuwaiti -Saudi border, fake testimony of Kuwaiti nurse (actually the daughter of Kuwaiti Ambassador to America) who was “trained” by an advertising agency in Wash. DC.

Did you learn anything new? Anything else you know that you would like to contribute?


Good News Education
https://www.facebook.com/groups/707482649266495/

Neutral Perspective: Pro & Anti-Pipeline

What Kinder Morgan does

Are All These Pipelines Really Necessary? Legislators and Citizens Want FERC to Answer
By Robbie Harris • Oct 26, 2015 wvtf.org
“..“We believe that pipelines are unnecessary and reviews them together with existing infrastructure, it will determine that there is currently enough capacity in our pipelines that are already in place to carry the gas the Marcellus region through Virginia and North Carolina.

At a news conference, local landowners and Republican and Democratic state legislators cautioned FERC to resist the temptation to compare the advantages of natural gas to coal, and instead compare them to renewable energy, when making its determination about whether the projects are the best way to go to address climate change and energy demand…”

Natural gas study stirs up controversy over Atlantic Coast Pipeline By Caleb Stewart | Posted: Mon 7:12 PM, Sep 12, 2016 whsv.com
“…”The fact is, demand for natural gas in Virginia and North Carolina is growing significantly – by 165 percent over the next 20 years,” said Ruby. “Existing pipelines in the region are constrained and operating at full capacity. They are not capable of meeting that huge growth in demand. In Hampton Roads, Virginia, for example, natural gas service is already being curtailed for large industrial customers during high-demand periods because existing pipelines are so constrained. Utilities have looked at expanding that infrastructure for years, and it just isn’t feasible. That’s why we urgently need new infrastructure like the Atlantic Coast Pipeline.”..

In North Carolina, there is currently only one pipeline serving the entire state, and it predominantly serves the western North Carolina.,” said Ruby. “That leaves entire communities in eastern North Carolina with limited or no access to natural gas. Upgrading the existing system or using available capacity, as the authors of this report propose, won’t do anything to expand service in eastern North Carolina. That’s why you need the Atlantic Coast Pipeline – it will actually be located in eastern North Carolina where these communities are located.”

“The reality is, the existing pipelines in our region are constrained and operating at full capacity during those peak demand periods. We need new infrastructure to alleviate those constraints,” said Ruby. “That’s why we’re proposing the Atlantic Coast Pipeline..

—DEPENDENCE ON NATURAL GAS?—

The pipelines, if approved, would provide the mid-Atlantic with natural gas for 80 years, the lifetime of the pipelines. The SELC argues that that would lock the region in to dependence on natural gas.

“An investment of billions of dollars in natural gas will further discourage these utilities from moving towards renewable energy, like solar and wind power that could save their customers more money,” Buppert said.

The two proposed pipelines would transport fracked natural gas from wells in West Virginia to customers in Virginia and the Carolinas. The pipelines would transect natural and recreation areas, along with cities, towns and farms. A number of citizen groups and businesses in several states have formed to oppose the pipelines.

—EXPORTING NATURAL GAS—

The report also raises the possibility of another utility-driven incentive to push for these projects:

“Because the supply of natural gas is abundant, utilities are exploring options to export the fuel overseas. That would require more capacity to move natural gas to the mid-Atlantic’s coastal ports. Therefore, ‘pipeline developers … have an additional motivation to expand their ownership interests in natural gas supply infrastructure,’ the researchers said.”…”

Pro-Pipeline Views

Bernard Hancock – Roughneck, facebook.com
WATCH: Oil industry worker speaks his mind at Kinder Morgan protests!

WATCH: First Nations man confronts anti-pipeline protesters


“Published on Nov 21, 2016

Christopher Wilson runs into a pro-oil and gas industry First Nations man who speaks up about the hypocrisy of anti-Kinder Morgan protesters in Vancouver, including his confrontation with an anti-oil Grand Chief in attendance. MORE: http://www.therebel.media/watch_first&#8230;
http://www.Facebook.com/JoinTheRebel *** http://www.Twitter.com/TheRebelTV&#8221;

New Technology Could End The Debate Over Pipeline Safety
By James Stafford – Aug 27, 2014, 6:16 PM CDT oilprice.com
“… They corrode and rupture, which threatens workers and nearby communities. In 2013 alone, over 119,000 barrels of oil were spilled in 623 incidents.

America’s existing pipelines are getting older and more prone to corrosion, and over the next five to 10 years, there will be a significant increase in the number of new pipelines.

And that is creating a huge opportunity for better pipeline safety technology.

Monitoring and detecting corrosion in pipelines is still a crude affair (no pun intended). Pipeline companies tend to underspend on safety, concerned only with meeting the minimum regulatory requirements.

One of the major ways pipeline operators detect corrosion is with a “pig,” a machine that travels down the inside of a pipeline looking for problems.

Pigs are not new — the industry has long relied heavily on them—and the newest generation of pigs, known as “smart pigs,” is considered an improvement over the pigs of yesterday. Smart pigs give a read on the state of the pipeline, such as cracks, corrosion, and metal loss. Operators receive this information in a control room and can then dispatch crews to fix the problem. As of 2012, 93 percent of pipeline inspections were conducted using smart pigs…

So alternative methods to detect trouble spots are needed. One method for detecting corrosion uses a device from outside the pipeline. A series of sensors placed on the outside of the pipeline can search for corrosion without interfering in operations.

Pipeline safety company Fox-Tek, a subsidiary of Augusta Industries (CVE: AAO), uses such a system to detect corrosion, as well as a fiber optic system to detect bends, strains and stress in pipelines.

But the real innovation in Fox-Tek’s system is its data analytics package. Companies that use smart pigs usually need to spend months doing post-inspection analysis, but Fox-Tek has developed proprietary software that does continuous and automatic analysis. ..”
Structural health monitoring of buried pipelines under static dislocation … researchgate.net

Products Made from Oil and Natural Gas oilandgasinfo.ca
Everyday Petroleum-based Products


“Published on Oct 2, 2013

Did you know that last year 36% of our energy consumption came from petroleum? What petroleum-based items do we use on a daily basis? Sneakers, bubblegum, bath soap and sweaters? These are only a few things made from petroleum. Watch this video and find out more!”

Neutral

Pipelines vs Oil Trains May 26, 2015/0 Comments/in Articles, Data and Analysis, News and Information /by Guest Author fractracker.org By Juliana Henao, Communications Intern
Natural Gas: Pros and Cons by RP Siegel on Tuesday, Apr 3rd, 2012 triplepundit.com
Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipeline Pros and Cons By Scott Steele May 31, 2013 RSS PDF newswire.net
“..Looking at the advantages it is certain the pipeline will provide jobs to boost economic growth in communities along the pipeline, provincially and nationally. Enbridge Inc. (NYSE:ENB) (TSE:ENB) notes on its website that the, “Northern Gateway Project will create 550 long-term jobs in B.C., 380 in Alberta and 210 in the rest of Canada for a total of 1150 long term jobs. Also there will be 270 billion in growth to Canada’s GDP over 30 years.”

Pipe fabrication & manufacturing is done according to industry standards and specifications to ensure safe delivery of oil and gas fuels. After the pipe is manufactured it undergoes various testing phases and inspection services including visual inspection, protective coatings inspection, x-ray inspection to name a few.

Pipelines have been proven to be the safest and most reliable mode of transport. According to Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA), “Our most recent statistics show that 99.99 per cent of liquid products were transported safely between 2002 and 2011.”

The Transportation Safety Board of Canada report that only five pipeline accidents were reported to the TSB in 2011, down from the 2010 total of 11, and below the 2006–2010 average of 9.

Another advantage is the difficulties in handling large amount of products by rail from one loading point is reduced. Findings also show minimum transit loss.

The disadvantages to laying pipelines, including the initial cost of environmental studies, pipeline construction is very expensive. Over time the pipeline could corrode and cause leakage. The Pembina Institute, natural Resources Defense Council and the Living Oceans Society, which issued a joint report on the proposed pipeline in November 2011 stated, “Diluted bitumen may weaken pipelines at a quicker rate than conventional oil because of its acidic, sulphuric, abrasive and viscous nature.”

This is minimized by treatment of the pipe with anti-corrosive coating supplemented with cathodic protection along with increased inspections and pipeline maintenance. New and innovative technologies like digital sensors are being tested, these sensors would help lower the risks of leakage even further.

Pipelines can become damaged by natural disasters or sabotage resulting in contamination of soil and groundwater the costs for clean-up could be astronomical. These occurrences are a lot harder if not impossible to control. Some other disadvantages are slower delivery to a limitation of fixed points.

“Oilfield Directory offers oil and gas company information, recognizing the need for inspection services such as pipe inspection, tank inspection, infrared thermography, calibrations services and more we have oil and gas companies and contractors who are committed to the safety of individuals as well as the environment .” notes a company spokesman for oilfielddirectory.com..”

Keystone XL Pipeline Facts: Pros and Cons Published 6:04 pm EST, November 14, 2014 Updated 12:23 pm EST, November 15, 2014 2 Comments By Emer Hughes heavy.com
The Pro’s and Con’s of the Keystone Xl Pipeline

Anti-Pipeline Views

(see Environment: Clean Water Rights? goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com)

Oil Pipelines and Spills cla.auburn.edu
“..Ponca City, Oklahoma is an example of one of the cities that is being affected by the expansion of the Keystone pipeline. Ponca City is now receiving an increased amount of toxic emissions from tar sand transport. Tar sand is composed of sand, petroleum, and mineral salts; a highly toxic class of chemicals are also added (Tar Sands Blockade). Tar sand produces 17% more greenhouse gases than traditional crude oil (NPR). The air quality has become life threatening, and residents are forced to breathe in dangerous emissions. Children in surrounding the new pipeline are 56% more likely to develop leukemia versus children that live ten miles away. Even though the Keystone XL website states that it will be the “safest pipeline” in North American, shabby construction work has already had to be redone. If a leak does occur once the pipe is built, residents will be at risk of toxic exposure. In every instance of a tar sand leak in populated areas, toxic chemical exposure through respiration has occurred. Toxic chemical exposure can lead to migraines, painful rashes, breathing complications, nausea, chemical sensitivities, and exacerbated cancer activity (Tar Sands Blockade). Tar sand sinks into water, making the cleanup extraordinarily expensive. When tar sand is exposed to air, the harmful chemicals that are added as diluents evaporate into the air forming heavy toxic clouds close to ground level…”
‘Pipe Dreams’- The Keystone XL Documentary Narrated by Daryl Hannah


“Published on Mar 24, 2016

This award winning documentary explores the implications of one of today’s most controversial issues – the construction of the Keystone XL Pipeline. Pipe Dreams is a new 40-minute documentary by Leslie Iwerks on the proposed Keystone XL pipeline. It is narrated by Daryl Hannah, who was arrested in Washington, DC at the sit-in protest in front of the White House calling on US President Barack Obama to reject the pipeline.

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The Real Impact of the Dakota Access Pipeline By Staff Writer Taylor Veracka ‘18 November 7, 2016 jhupolitik.org
“..With all the chaos surrounding the DAPL it’s hard to make out what exactly is the truth and what is not. There are some things that are strikingly clear, however. The Sioux Nation feel that they have been done (yet another) injustice by the US government. They feel their culture and environmental health is at risk, and that they are being taken advantage of. Clearly, many Americans agree. Regardless of the economic benefits of the pipeline, it is important to recognize the problems that the Sioux are facing, and to remember that the majority of the people making political decisions on oil transportation do not completely understand tribal connections to their land. This pipeline represents another opportunity to exploit already endangered and disadvantaged population, and their voices must be considered with the same weight as economic concerns. ..”
Map Displays Five Years of Oil Pipeline Spills
by Amanda Starbuck, 6/22/2015 foreffectivegov.org
“..Since 2010, over 3,300 incidents of crude oil and liquefied natural gas leaks or ruptures have occurred on U.S. pipelines. These incidents have killed 80 people, injured 389 more, and cost $2.8 billion in damages. They also released toxic, polluting chemicals in local soil, waterways, and air.

Over 1,000 of these incidents occurred on pipelines carrying crude oil. High Country News, a nonprofit news organization in Colorado, mapped these spills:..”

-Texas to Mexico

Inspired by Standing Rock, West Texans take action to fight another pipeline Sasha von Oldershausen The Nation Thu, 08 Dec 2016 12:12 UTC Map sott.net
“..Two residents of the 6,000-person city of Alpine were arrested early Tuesday morning on grounds of trespassing after they chained themselves to the entrance gates of a pipeline-construction site owned and operated by Energy Transfer Partners (ETP), the Dallas-based energy company responsible for the Dakota Access Pipeline (DAPL). Dozens more stood by, holding electric tea lights and signs denouncing the energy company.

Inspired by the fight against the DAPL near the Standing Rock Reservation in North Dakota, the group was protesting a different ETP pipeline project. The Trans-Pecos Pipeline will cut through the spare and pristine Big Bend region of Texas to the border of Mexico, transporting natural gas into Mexico’s interior. ..

…This week’s victory at Standing Rock, in which the Army Corps of Engineers announced it would not permit the pipeline to be drilled under the Missouri River, underscored the power of direct action. Indigenous organizers and, eventually, thousands of supporters camped on the banks of the Cannonball River to protect their ancestral lands and water source. Their united action, even in the face of police violence, proved that last resorts can work.

“[Standing Rock] in North Dakota has really reinvigorated the whole movement,” said Trans-Pecos Pipeline opponent David Keller, an archeologist who earlier this year watched as ETP pummeled through an ancient Native American site at Trap Spring, whose State Archeological Landmark status was pending at the time.

In fact, the events at Standing Rock have inspired the opposition to rethink their approach entirely. At a recent meeting, during which the opposition clandestinely discussed plans for Tuesday’s action, they talked about shifting the verbiage of their protest to more closely resemble that of the protest in North Dakota. ..

..Others see it as a collective fight. “We’re not piggybacking,” Glover said. “This is one big fight that we have before us and it’s scary but it’s also a wonderful opportunity for us because this is not just about our little space here or their space up in North Dakota. This is about how our water is going to be protected all over America.” ..

..In West Virginia and Virginia, for example, residents concerned about the $3.5 billion Mountain Valley natural gas pipeline have formed an alliance to oppose the project, which they say threatens their underground water supplies. Resistance is also gathering against the Bayou Bridge pipeline, another ETP project, which would snake through 60 miles of Louisiana and Texas. Still, few outside these and other municipalities engaged in local pipeline fights have taken notice….

Opponents of the Trans-Pecos Pipeline are eager to do the same. “Even if we don’t stop it altogether, we’re bringing a lot of awareness to this issue in order to pressure, to get our government to change oil and gas infrastructure regulation,” Glover said. …”

GLOBAL

-Pipeline War or Not?

The Syrian Pipeline War: How Russia Trumped USA Energy War in the Mideast Wed, Sep 21, 2016 | russia-insider.com
There is a crucial hydrocarbon component to the great power contest in and around Syria says F. William Engdahl
“..In a fundamental sense the entirety of the five-year-long war over Syria, as well as the entire Arab Spring from Libya to Egypt to Iraq has been about control of hydrocarbon resources—oil and natural gas– and of potential hydrocarbon pipelines to the promising markets of the European Union.

Dick Cheney’s 2001 War on Terror was primarily about providing the excuse for a direct US military takeover of the vast oil fields of Iraq and other key Middle East countries. Washington’s War on Syria has been less a war for control of oil. Rather, it’s about who controls whose natural gas flows via which pipelines through which borders to the vast EU gas market.

At this point it looks more and more as if Russia’s geopolitical and geo-economic strategy is trumping (no Donald pun intended) Washington’s very troubled game in the region. Turkey is apparently deciding to become a key ally in this Russian energy trump…”
The Truth About Pipeline Politics in the Syrian Proxy War


“Published on Oct 7, 2015

http://www.undergroundworldnews.com
Oil politics in the Syrian civil war is a complex web of money deception and proxy war. What began as non-violent grassroots rebellion against Bashar al Assad and the Syrian state has morphed into a complex proxy war involving countless factions and alliances competing for control of oil, and territory. Various nation states and world powers who have their own financial interests in the region are supporting the armies on the ground. This is because of Syria’s strategic importance as a potential gatekeeper between oil reserves from the gulf and oil markets in Europe. There are two different proposed pipelines that will have to run through Syria in order for this to happen. One sponsored by the gulf states called the “Qatar-Turkey pipeline” and one sponsored by the Iranians and Syrians nicknamed the “Islamic pipeline”.

Since the 1990s, Europe has been increasingly dependent on Russian natural gas and oil. In 2014 it was estimated that 42% of the European Union’s natural gas imports originated from Russia. This dependence has limited Europe’s ability to make a show of force against Russia. Last year the U.S introduced economic sanctions against Russia in retaliation for its annexation of Crimea. When the US asked the EU to participate, there was a heated debate amongst the European nations about how exactly to impose sanctions. Eastern Europeans felt especially threatened by Russia’s actions and wanted to enact the harshest penalties possible, however, Western Europeans were well aware that cutting off economic trade with Russia would destabilize their economies. As a result the European Union (EU) has desperately been looking for other sources of natural gas. The “pipeline” which will carry natural gas from Azerbaijan into Europe will help to offset dependence on Russian gas, but will take years to reach full capacity and will not rid Europe of Russian dependence altogether. On top of which European demand for natural gas is expected to rise dramatically in the next 30 years. There is only one known source of gas that can solve Europe’s long term energy needs and that’s source resides in the Middle East underneath the Persian Gulf.

Read More:
http://www.unicornriot.ninja/?p=2092&#8221;

WORLD BANK WHISTLEBLOWER ON SYRIA [THE IRAN, IRAQ, SYRIA PIPELINE PROJECT]


“Published on Sep 6, 2013

THE WAR ON SYRIA: [PIPELINES & THE U.S. DOLLAR ARE KEY. ALSO READ “WHICH PATH TO PERSIA? http://bit.ly/R1qbQp, AND THE VIDEO INTERVIEW WITH US GENERAL WESLEY CLARK: “WE”RE GOING TO TAKE OUT 7 COUNTRIES IN 5 YEARS: IRAQ, SYRIA, LIBYA, SOMALIA, SUDAN & IRAN…” http://youtu.be/tYBc92Jw724

WORLD BANK WHISTLEBLOWER : WHO IS KAREN HUDES?

Karen Hudes studied law at Yale Law School and economics at the University of Amsterdam. She worked in the US Export Import Bank of the US from 1980-1985 and in the Legal Department of the World Bank from 1986-2007. In 2007 Karen warned the US Treasury Department and US Congress that the US would lose its right to appoint the President of the World Bank if the current American President of the World Bank did not play by the rules.

[http://www.imf.org/external/np/cm/201… | http://kahudes.net/about-us/ |
http://blogs.forbes.com/people/karenh…%5D

THE IRAN, IRAQ, SYRIA PIPELINE PROJECT (LARGEST PIPELINE PROJECT IN MIDDLE EAST)

“In July 2011, as the NATO and Gulf states’ destabilization operations against Assad in Syria were in full swing, the governments of Syria, Iran and Iraq signed an historic gas pipeline energy agreement which went largely unnoticed…” “This Iran-Iraq-Syria pipeline would be the largest gas pipeline in the Middle East and would span from Iran’s gas-rich South Pars field to the Mediterranean coastline in Lebanon, via Iraq and Syria.

TIMELINE

8/23/06: WikiLeaks Cable: Shell aggressively attempting to acquire oil & gas investments in Syria: http://bit.ly/12xcxx1

2/14/11: Syria, Iraq to Transfer Gas from Iran to Europe: http://bit.ly/16ZaGP9

7/25/11: Iran, Iraq, Syria sign major gas pipeline deal: http://bit.ly/1bM99nm

4/30/12: Busy Day For The FSA: Terrorism, Abductions, Theft, Assassinations, Bomb Blasts And Sabotage of Pipelines:
http://bit.ly/IAn0Af

8/12/12: NATO: Is Syria about the oil?: http://bit.ly/QUPCpe

5/3/12: Nabucco’s Future and Syria’s Convenient Civil War: The End of the Iran-Iraq-Syria Pipeline: http://bit.ly/19Rcrm9

7/28/12: Why Qatar wants to invade Syria: http://bit.ly/Snvwk0

10/8/12: A Primer On the REAL Global Geopolitical Battle: http://bit.ly/RpqkO8

10/11/12: Syria, Turkey, Israel, Oil And The Greater Middle East War: http://bit.ly/SV3Aua

10/14/12: Syria: NATO Sets Its Sights On Gas Pipeline: http://bit.ly/QEkb0A

11/21/12: Iran-Iraq-Syria gas pipeline back on track: http://bit.ly/XBAent

2/20/12: Iraq green lights gas pipeline deal with Iran, Syria: http://bit.ly/12p74qW

3/4/13: New Gas Pipeline will Connect Iran and Syria: http://www.naturalgaseurope.com/iran-&#8230;

3/10/13: Iran, Iraq resume talks on gas deal: http://bit.ly/14GrgmH

6/7/13: Oil and Pipeline Geopolitics: The US-NATO Race for Syria’s Black Gold
Syria’s proven oil reserves, amounting to 2.5 billion barrels: http://bit.ly/Zh5fHD

6/18/13: The US Wants Syrian Oil, Not Democracy: http://bit.ly/16ESwVM

6/28/13: Another Oil War? Is the US Playing With Gas in Syria? http://bit.ly/18mZt1d

7/10/13: Syria: The Mediterranean Piece: http://bit.ly/1dvECvV [“We do not want stability in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and even Saudi Arabia…The real issue is not whether, but how to destabilize.”]

7/21/13: Iran, Iraq, Syria to form troika to export gas to Europe: http://bit.ly/159SHbo

7/23/13: War against Iran, Iraq AND Syria? http://bit.ly/163lfCa

7/26/13: The Syrian conflict and gas pipeline routes: http://bit.ly/14cssP7

8/2/13: OILPRICE.COM: Iran-Iraq-Syria Pipeline Must Tempt Europe: http://bit.ly/13BBMiv

7/27/13: Why Syria?: http://bit.ly/1dlfGpQ

8/28/13: Syria: The path of the pipeline: http://bit.ly/14Idt2Z

8/28/13: The war on Iran begins…in Syria: http://bit.ly/1dlZW5L

U.S. ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION (EIA) | Overview of oil and natural gas in the Eastern Mediterranean region | August 13, 2013

“Syria possesses the largest proved reserves of crude oil in the eastern Mediterranean countries. The Oil & Gas Journal estimated Syria’s proved reserves at 2.5 billion barrels in January 2013, a total larger than all of Syria’s neighbors except for Iraq. The Oil & Gas Journal also reported at the end of 2012 that Syria held proved reserves of 8.5 Tcf of natural gas. This gives Syria the largest conventional hydrocarbon resource base of the countries in this report,… http://www.eia.gov/countries/regions-&#8230;

*Note/Clarification: This is an excerpt from an at-length interview by Greg Hunter. While the interview is not about Syria, Hudes makes mention of Syria as an example of current-day, political theatre. In the original interview, while Hudes is correct regarding the true intent of the demonization/destabilization of Syria (natural gas/pipelines), her facts are reversed. The Saudis offered to purchase $15 billion in Russian arms & to restrict oil output for Russia to maintain their market & price. (Hudes states this info. the other way around.) Original interview: http://youtu.be/gHVgRgYdCsQ&#8221;

-Not a Pipeline War

The War Against the Assad Regime Is Not a ‘Pipeline War’
by Gareth Porter, September 24, 2016 original.antiwar.com
“…Even more important, the immediate problem for Qatar’s proposal was not Syria but Saudi Arabia, whose territory the Qatari gas would have to cross to get to Syria. In January 2010, The National, a daily UAE [United Arab Emirates] newspaper reported that the main obstacle to the idea of a pipeline to carry Qatari natural gas to Turkey and then to Europe “was likely to be Saudi Arabia, which has a track record of obstructing regional pipeline development” and still had very bad relations with Qatar. And Middle East geopolitical analyst Felix Imonti reported at Oilprice.com in 2012 that Qatar had been forced to abandon the pipeline idea in 2010 because Saudi Arabia had not agreed to have it built across its territory…

If it’s not a pipeline war, why is the US intervening in Syria? The US decision to support Turkey, Qatar and Saudi Arabia in their ill-conceived plan to overthrow the Assad regime was primarily a function of the primordial interest of the US permanent war state in its regional alliances. The three Sunni allies control US access to the key US military bases in the region, and the Pentagon, the CIA, the State Department and the Obama White House were all concerned, above all, with protecting the existing arrangements for the US military posture in the region.

After all, those military bases are what allow the United States to play at the role of hegemonic power in the Middle East, despite the disasters that have accompanied that role. The degree to which the US determination to preserve its present military profile in the region is illustrated by the case of US-Qatar relations over that tiny monarchy’s arming of extremist Sunni groups in Syria in 2012. The Obama administration was very unhappy with Qatar’s choice of proxies in Syria, and the National Security Council discussed a proposal to pull a squadron of US fighter planes from Al Udeid Air Base in Qatar as a way of putting pressure on the government over the issue, according to a story in the Wall Street Journal.

But the US Central Command (CENTCOM), which had moved its headquarters to Al Udeid in 2003, argued that the base was critical to its operations in the region, and that it was about to renegotiate its agreement with Qatar over the use of it. The Pentagon supported CENTCOM’s opposition to any move that would disturb relations with Qatar over the issue and vetoed any such pressure on Qatar. The administration ended up doing nothing about the issue, and in 2013, the US-Qatar Defense Cooperation Agreement originally reached in 2003 was renewed for another ten years.

The massive, direct and immediate power interests of the US war state – not the determination to ensure that a pipeline would carry Qatar’s natural gas to Europe – drove the US policy of participation in the war against the Syrian regime. Only if activists focus on that reality will they be able to unite effectively to oppose not only the Syrian adventure but the war system itself.”

I’m still currently researching on this growing “hot topic” in our nation and planet. Feel free to share any additional resources (e.g. sites) to help argue either side as we call can learn from each other…

Good News Automotive
https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=388645047917452

Now you Know: History of Oil Spills

Top 10 Largest Oil Spills In History


“..Published on Nov 16, 2014

Welcome to Top10Archive. From Fergana Valley, to the Amoco Cadiz Incident, in this video we will look at the top 10 largest oil spills in recorded history. In all fairness, we have omitted the Kuwait oil fires and oil lakes of 1991, as they were intentional oil spills.

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10. Amoco Cadiz Oil Tankers – 1.6 to 1.7 Million Barrels
9. The Castillo De Bellver – 1.85 Million Barrels
8. ABT Summer – 1.8 to 1.9 Million Barrels
7. Iran-Iraq War – 1.9 Million Barrels
6. Fergana Valley – 2+ Million Barrels
5. The Atlantic Empress – 2.1 to 2.4 Million Barrels
4. Ixtoc – 3+ Million Barrels
3. BP Oil Spill – 4.7 to 4.9 Million Barrels

Deepwater Horizon Documentary – The Largest Oil Spill In American History [HD]


“Published on Feb 4, 2016

Deepwater Horizon Documentary The Largest Oil Spill In American History Oil Spill Documentary The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill BP oil spill BP oil disaster Macondo blowout

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill, the BP oil disaster, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and the Macondo blowout) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010. Eleven people went missing and were never found and it is considered the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry, an estimated 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previously largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill. The US Government estimated the total discharge at 4.9 million barrels (210 million US gal; 780,000 m3). After several failed efforts to contain the flow, the well was declared sealed on 19 September 2010. Reports in early 2012 indicated the well site was still leaking.
A massive response ensued to protect beaches, wetlands and estuaries from the spreading oil utilizing skimmer ships, floating booms, controlled burns and 1.84 million US gallons (7,000 m3) of Corexit oil dispersant. Due to the months-long spill, along with adverse effects from the response and cleanup activities, extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats and fishing and tourism industries was reported. In Louisiana, 4.6 million pounds of oily material was removed from the beaches in 2013, over double the amount collected in 2012. Oil cleanup crews worked four days a week on 55 miles of Louisiana shoreline throughout 2013. Oil continued to be found as far from the Macondo site as the waters off the Florida Panhandle and Tampa Bay, where scientists said the oil and dispersant mixture is embedded in the sand. In 2013 it was reported that dolphins and other marine life continued to die in record numbers with infant dolphins dying at six times the normal rate. One study released in 2014 reported that tuna and amberjack that were exposed to oil from the spill developed deformities of the heart and other organs that would be expected to be fatal or at least life-shortening and another study found that cardiotoxicity might have been widespread in animal life exposed to the spill.
Numerous investigations explored the causes of the explosion and record-setting spill. Notably, the U.S. government’s September 2011 report pointed to defective cement on the well, faulting mostly BP, but also rig operator Transocean and contractor Halliburton. Earlier in 2011, a White House commission likewise blamed BP and its partners for a series of cost-cutting decisions and an insufficient safety system, but also concluded that the spill resulted from “systemic” root causes and “absent significant reform in both industry practices and government policies, might well recur”.
In November 2012, BP and the United States Department of Justice settled federal criminal charges with BP pleading guilty to 11 counts of manslaughter, two misdemeanors, and a felony count of lying to Congress. BP also agreed to four years of government monitoring of its safety practices and ethics, and the Environmental Protection Agency announced that BP would be temporarily banned from new contracts with the US government. BP and the Department of Justice agreed to a record-setting $4.525 billion in fines and other payments. As of February 2013, criminal and civil settlements and payments to a trust fund had cost the company $42.2 billion.
In September 2014, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that BP was primarily responsible for the oil spill because of its gross negligence and reckless conduct.
In July 2015, BP agreed to pay $18.7 billion in fines, the largest corporate settlement in U.S. history.”

2. The Gulf War Oil Spill – 8 Million Barrels
1. The Midway-Sunset Oil Field – Lakeview Gusher – 9 Million Barrels..”

Pipelines

Native American Prophecy + Enbridge Oil Spill History


“Published on May 27, 2012

A History of Enbridge Oil Pipeline Spills –
http://www.seankheraj.com/?p=1176 – FACTBOX-Enbridge has history of US pipeline spills:
“Enbridge Inc. (ENB.TO) ruptured in southern Michigan on Monday, spilling between 800,000 and 1 million gallons (19,047 to 23,809 barrels) of crude into a creek feeding the Kalamazoo River, which flows into Lake Michigan.
November, 2007: Two workers are killed after an Enbridge-operated pipeline catches fire in Northern Minnesota. The same line had recently been repaired. Following the incident, which resulted in a pipeline closure, up to 20 percent of U.S. crude imports were temporarily halted. Enbridge was fined for having allowed pressure on the pipeline to exceed recommended limits”
http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/0&#8230;

Pollution charges laid in 2007 Burnaby oil pipeline rupture
http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/ne&#8230;

Companies plead guilty in 2007 pipeline rupture
http://www.burnabynow.com/news/Compan&#8230;

Burnaby oil spill turns into crude geyser, what a scene!
http://chineseinvancouver.blogspot.ca&#8230;

Leaking pipeline reopens, but industry concerns remain
http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/09/17/enbr&#8230;

oil spill in Abbotsford: Timely reminder of pipeline expansion dangers
http://wildernesscommittee.org/press_&#8230;

Piping tar sands oil through Ontario protested
National Energy Boards hearing on Enbridge pipeline reversal shutdown
http://toronto.mediacoop.ca/story/pip&#8230;

NO TANKERS ON B.C. COAST at the Art Gallery, 26 March, 2012

First Nations Song

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill pic FROM http://gulfofmexicooilspillblog.com/

MP fears B.C. pipeline could force people from homes http://www.ctvbc.ctv.ca/servlet/an/lo&#8230;
aND ctvglobalnothings, don’t even try to hit me with an infringement copyright BS again!”

AMERICAS

NORTH

-USA

-History

30 Years of Oil and Gas Pipeline Accidents, Mapped George Joseph @georgejoseph94 Nov 30, 2016 citylab.com
The sheer number of incidents involving America’s fossil fuel infrastructure suggests environmental concerns should go beyond Standing Rock.

“…

The 1,172 mile Dakota Access Pipeline, stretching from North Dakota to Illinois, would carry 470,000 barrels of crude oil a day if completed. But its future is still uncertain. Last week, the Army Corps of Engineers announced plans to close the Standing Rock Sioux camp by Dec. 5, but later claimed it had “no plans for forcible removal” and “is seeking a peaceful and orderly transition to a safer location,” after public backlash. In recent weeks, police have used increasingly aggressive means to confront protesters, including water cannons, tear-gas grenades, and sound weapons. In response, thousands of veterans have pledged to travel to Standing Rock next week to serve as human shields for the protesters, who call themselves “water protectors.”

Regardless of what happens at Standing Rock, Zizi says he expects deadly pipeline accidents will continue to flare up nationwide. “I live in Richmond, California and experienced the 2012 Chevron refinery explosion,” says Zizi. “That was scary, living six blocks away and seeing the black smoke covering the sun. They said there’s nothing wrong with this, just stay in your house. But this is contaminating our land, our soil, our air, our water. Once things are contaminated, it is hard to go back.”..”
Federal data: As oil production soars, so do pipeline leaks By Tribune wire reportsContact Reporter May 22nd 2015 chicagotribune.com
“The oil pipeline leak that fouled a stretch of California coastline this week reflects a troubling trend in the nation’s infrastructure: As U.S. oil production has soared, so has the number of pipeline accidents.

Since 2009, the annual number of significant accidents on oil and petroleum pipelines has shot up by almost 60 percent, roughly matching the rise in U.S. crude oil production, according an analysis of federal data by The Associated Press.

Nearly two-thirds of the leaks during that time have been linked to corrosion or material, welding and equipment failures, problems often associated with older pipelines, although they also can occur in newer ones, too. Other leaks were blamed on natural disasters or human error, such as a backhoe striking a pipeline.

Industry officials and federal regulators say they have adequate means of gauging the safety of pipelines, but the aging infrastructure is a source of lingering concern for outside experts….

With new drilling techniques such as hydraulic fracturing, the U.S. is in a period of sustained growth in oil production. New frontiers, such as parts of North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas and Pennsylvania, have lifted domestic output to near historic highs.

The federal pipeline safety agency recently issued guidance — though not a rule — that lays out steps pipeline operators should take to evaluate the risks of aging pipelines.

After previous pipeline spills, federal safety regulators have considered requiring greater use of valves that can automatically seal off breached lines. Also proposed are better leak-detection systems and an expanded definition of areas that are considered “high-consequence” during a pipeline break, such as heavily populated or environmentally sensitive locations….”

=>Colorado

178 barrels of oil spill into Colorado’s only designated wild and scenic river Published time: 21 Jun, 2014 10:03 rt.com
“..A 7,500-gallon storage tank of crude oil has completely drained into the scenic Cache La Poudre, Colorado’s only designated National Wild and Scenic River, southeast of Fort Collins…”
Suncor refinery accident released 75,600 pounds of sulfur dioxide, 150 times daily limit
Suncor admits sulfur dioxide release was 150 times higher than limits but says there were no health risks By BRUCE FINLEY bfinley@denverpost.com PUBLISHED: October 28, 2016 at 3:58 pm | UPDATED: October 31, 2016 at 1:07 pm .denverpost.com
“…The Suncor oil refinery upwind of Denver that recently belched pumpkin-colored gas and dust into the sky, worrying residents and prompting highway closures, released far more sulfur dioxide than previously known — 75,600 pounds, 150 times beyond a 24-hour limit that triggers an investigation, according to a company letter obtained Friday.

Suncor spokeswoman Lisha Burnett told reporters shortly after the Oct. 14 event that no sulfur dioxide had been detected near the refinery, but company officials later acknowledged the sulfur dioxide release had exceeded the daily limit of 500 pounds. The company and state officials say the release did not pose any health risks…”
BP pipeline ruptures into CO river By Marlee Kokotovic – December 27, 2016 | News Report nationofchange.org
The county where this spill took place has experienced 19 reported spills in 2016, 12 of those incidents were BP.
“…Last week, a BP pipeline ruptured in Colorado for “unknown” reasons, spilling coal-bed methane-contaminated wastewater into the river. Upon the discovery of the spill, an earthen dam was constructed to prevent a majority of the toxic chemicals from traveling further downstream. So far, we know the contaminated water has traveled at least 2,300 feet along the tributary bed…”
BP Pipeline Ruptures in Colorado, Spills Into Sauls Creek
by Jonathan Romeo / The Durango Herald Thursday, December 22nd, 2016 earthfirstjournal.org
“..As of Dec. 19, there have been 19 reported spills in La Plata County in 2016 accounting for approximately 350 barrels of spilled substances, mostly produced water.

BP has accounted for 12 of those incidents, spilling about 165 barrels, according to COGCC data.

Two spills (including this recent one) did not have estimates for amounts leaked.

..”

=>Maryland

America’s aging pipelines
Newsroom cnn.com
“A CNN investigation into the deteriorating pipelines buried all over America. CNN’s Rene Marsh reports.Source: CNN”

=>North Dakota

Largest Leak In State History: North Dakota Pipeline Leaks Crude Oil, 3mn Gallons of Fracking Fluid


“…Published on Jan 23, 2015

http://www.undergroundworldnews.com
Dahboo7 On Zeekly: http://zeeklytv.com/user/Dahboo77

Nearly 3 million gallons of saltwater and an as yet unknown amount of crude oil have leaked from a northwest North Dakota pipeline into a creek that feeds into the Missouri River. Officials have called the leak the largest of its kind in state history.

The leak in the 4-inch saltwater collection line, owned by Summit Midstream Partners LP and operated by subsidiary Meadowlark Midstream Co., was discovered earlier this month and was reported to the state on January 7, according to Reuters.

Yet some of the brine made it to the Missouri River, the Williston Herald reported, and the state found “high readings” of contamination at the confluence of the Little Muddy and Missouri Rivers southeast of Williston, according to Karl Rockeman, the director of water quality at the Department of Health.

Williston sits in the middle of North Dakota’s oil boom, and the saltwater is said to be a byproduct of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking.

http://rt.com/usa/225671-north-dakota&#8230;..”
Weather Affects Oil Pipeline Spill Cleanup in North Dakota By james macpherson, associated press BISMARCK, N.D. — Dec 8, 2016, 5:32 PM ET abcnews.go.com
“..A company with a history of oil field-related spills in North Dakota and Montana is being hampered by winter weather in its cleanup of a “significant” pipeline break that leaked crude oil into a tributary of the Little Missouri River in western North Dakota, a regulator said Thursday.

Bill Suess, an environmental scientist with the North Dakota Health Department, said the Belle Fourche Pipeline Co. spill was discovered Monday by a landowner near Belfield. The cause of the leak is under investigation and the amount of the spill is unknown, in part because of recent blizzards and subzero temperatures throughout North Dakota, he said.

“Anytime you have cold temperatures, it’s going to hinder cleanup and the investigation,” Suess said.

He said the spill migrated about 2? miles from the spill site along Ash Coulee Creek, and it fouled an unknown amount of private and U.S. Forest Service land along the waterway. He said state and federal inspectors have been monitoring the spill and that it appeared to be contained. The creek was free-flowing when the spill occurred but has since frozen over.

The spill in the creek is about 20 miles upstream of the Little Missouri River. Suess said it did not appear that any of the oil reached the river and no drinking water sources were affected.
..”

=>South Dakota

Keystone pipeline leaks 210K gallons of oil in South Dakota Associated Press 12 hours ago (11.17.17) yahoo.com
“..AMHERST, S.D. (AP) — TransCanada Corp.’s Keystone pipeline leaked an estimated 210,000 gallons of oil onto agricultural land in northeastern South Dakota, the company and state regulators said Thursday, but state officials don’t believe the leak polluted any surface water bodies or drinking water systems.

Crews shut down the pipeline Thursday morning and activated emergency response procedures after a drop in pressure was detected resulting from the leak south of a pump station in Marshall County, TransCanada said in a statement. The cause was being investigated…

Keystone pipeline leak spills 210,000 gallons of oil in South Dakota Last Updated Nov 16, 2017 9:13 PM EST cbsnews.com
‘..AMHERST, S.D. — TransCanada Corp.’s Keystone pipeline has been shut down after it leaked an estimated 210,000 gallons of oil in northeastern South Dakota, the company and state regulators reported Thursday.

Crews shut down the pipeline Thursday morning and activated emergency response procedures after a drop in pressure was detected resulting from the leak south of a pump station in Marshall County, TransCanada said in a statement. The cause was being investigated.

Late Thursday evening, TransCanada tweeted a picture that apparently shows the “approximate release area” as seen from an aerial patrol of the company’s initial response:

Image of Amherst incident taken earlier today by aerial patrol as part of our initial response. For more updates, visit https://t.co/8yWI1Oq2EM pic.twitter.com/uRNtYUdVjL
— TransCanada (@TransCanada) November 16, 2017

Officials don’t believe the leak affected any surface water bodies or threatened any drinking water systems, said Brian Walsh, an environmental scientist manager at the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, which has dispatched a staff member to the site.

“Ultimately, the cleanup responsibility lies with TransCanada, and they’ll have to clean it up in compliance with our state regulations,” Walsh said.

The pipeline transports crude from Alberta, Canada, to refineries in Illinois and Oklahoma, passing through the eastern Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. It can handle nearly 600,000 barrels, or about 23 million gallons, daily. TransCanada says on its website that the company has safely transported more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil, or about 63 billion gallons, through the system since operations began in 2010…”

US Has Had 220 Oil Pipeline Leaks This Year, And No One Is Paying Attention


“Published on Oct 29, 2016

The amount of oil being spilled on American soil is increasing at an alarming rate, but the corporate-controlled media has said almost nothing about it, and our elected officials are doing even less about this growing problem. SUBSCRIBE to Ring Of Fire: https://www.youtube.com/user/golefttv&#8221;

Find Pipelines Near You (see map) pipelineawareness.org
“Pipelines are all around you. More than two million miles of pipelines cross the United States connecting to other pipelines, manufacturing and refining centers, distribution hubs, businesses and your home. Pipelines safely transport natural gas, crude oil, gasoline, propane, ethanol and other energy products every day…

Trains

Crude Oil Transportation: A Timeline of Failure riverkeeper.org
Crude Oil by Rail

“In 2013, far more oil was spilled from rail accidents in the U.S.—more than 1.15 million gallons—than in the previous four decades, combined. Read about it…”
Oil Train Spills Hit Record Level in 2014 by Tony Dokoupil
News Jan 26 2015, 8:49 am ET nbcnews.com
“..American oil trains spilled crude oil more often in 2014 than in any year since the federal government began collecting data on such incidents in 1975, an NBC News analysis shows.

The record number of spills sparked a fireball in Virginia, polluted groundwater in Colorado, and destroyed a building in Pennsylvania, causing at least $5 million in damages and the loss of 57,000 gallons of crude oil.

By volume, that’s dramatically less crude than trains spilled in 2013, when major derailments in Alabama and North Dakota leached a record 1.4 million gallons — more than was lost in the prior 40 years combined. But by frequency of spills, 2014 set a new high with 141 “unintentional releases,” according to data from the federal Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA). By comparison, between 1975 and 2012, U.S. railroads averaged just 25 spills a year. ..”

Why Is Transporting Oil So Dangerous?


“Published on Mar 2, 2015

Subscribe! http://bitly.com/1iLOHml

Transporting oil by rail has come under scrutiny after the recent explosions near residential communities in Virginia and Ontario. So, how dangerous are oil trains? “

-Maps

Crude-by-Rail Across America earthjustice.org
“..Oil trains are not subject to the same strict routing requirements placed on other hazardous materials; trains carrying explosive crude are permitted to pass directly through cities—with tragic results. In the absence of more protective regulations, communities across the country are beginning to take matters in their own hands…”

Misc.

Pick Your Poison For Crude — Pipeline, Rail, Truck Or Boat James Conca , Contributor Apr 26, 2014 @ 10:35 AM 124,381 views forbes.com
“..The short answer is: truck worse than train worse than pipeline worse than boat (Oilprice.com). But that’s only for human death and property destruction. For the normalized amount of oil spilled, it’s truck worse than pipeline worse than rail worse than boat (Congressional Research Service). Different yet again is for environmental impact (dominated by impact to aquatic habitat), where it’s boat worse than pipeline worse than truck worse than rail…”

Solutions?

Better Ways to Stop Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Posted on March 9, 2015 by Andrew Campbell energyathaas.wordpress.com
“.. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which sets rates for the country’s interstate natural gas pipelines, launched a new docket last November. FERC proposes to allow pipelines to recover capital expenditures made to enhance reliability, improve safety and meet environmental objectives. This would be allowed outside of the normal rate-setting process…

The rapidly falling cost of communicating sensors and cloud computing is enabling real-time measurement that was cost prohibitive in the past. This trend is called the “Internet of Things” or Industry 4.0, in the industrial context. Now it’s feasible to monitor natural gas pipelines and compressors at many locations on a real-time basis….

The Environmental Defense Fund and Google have launched an initiative that demonstrates one new approach to leak monitoring. In city after city they are conducting drive-by leak surveys using car-mounted measurement devices. Street View meets leak detection. In the sample maps below, each circle signifies a leak, with darker colors representing bigger leaks. The incidence of leaks varies significantly between and within cities….”
Oil spills Solutions, personal.psu.edu
“..According to EPA’s website the best way we can best avoid the environmental and economic effects of oil spills by preventing and containing them in the first place. For more than two decades, EPA’s Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures, or SPCC program, has worked at several hundred thousand oil storage facilities to prevent the discharge of all kinds of oil into the waters of the United States. EPA’s approach to preventing oil spills combines planning and enforcement measures. To prevent oil spills, EPA requires owners or operators of certain oil storage facilities to prepare and implement SPCC Plans that detail the facility’s spill prevention and control measures. EPA also enforces the oil spill liability and penalty provisions under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, which provide incentives to facility owners/operators to take the necessary steps to prevent oil spills. EPA also conducts on-site facility inspections to ensure that facilities take adequate measures to prevent an accidental discharge…”
How to Prevent Deepwater Spills by Peter Fairley
June 10, 2010 technologyreview.com
Safety upgrades are critical but could mean higher prices for oil and gas.
“…One inherently safer option that many petroleum engineers are considering is bringing BOPs to the surface. In this scheme the BOP on the wellhead thousands of feet below the ocean surface is backed up by a second BOP on the drill rig that would be accessible for more regular inspection and testing. Doing so would mean hardening the risers that link the wellhead and the drill rig to handle extreme pressures…”

Learned anything new? Was there something else you know that you would like to contribute to this that was missed? Thoughts, suggestions, feedback, etc..?

Good News Automotive
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