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How Safe is Your Information When You Use a DNA Testing Kit?
by Jessa Barron October 22, 2015 nextadvisor.com
“..They can help us discover more about our origins and even help us connect to family members we didn’t know we had. While there are questions about how these tests are completed, one of the more pertinent questions relates to the security of these tests. Many are concerned with who has access to your DNA test once it’s sent back into the lab and what the lab can legally do with your DNA. To help you determine how safe your information is if you use a DNA testing kit, we answer some of the most common questions when it comes to protecting your information and test results…”
Risks of DNA Testing in Search for Ancestors May 30, 20069:00 AM ET npr.org
“..I should point out that, when you look at the mitochondria and you look at the Y chromosome, it is only looking at one chapter in the 23 chapters of the DNA history. And DNA is, if you want to think about it in a more practical term, it’s like a tape recorder. And it records all of your ancestral migrations, and it has nothing to do with politics, or race, or religion. It is only recording those events, and half of it comes from your mother and half of it comes from your father. But it’s not always equal.
So, that being said, parents and children do not necessarily always inherit, let’s say the minor components of a genetic ancestry. So you might have three children, and one child would inherit, let’s say, a 15 percent sub-Saharan African content, and the second child will inherit none. And that’s just the DNA shuffle, as we call it. ..
But we also know that this DNA and this racial categorization is used in forensics and in criminology, in ways that your own privacy might be subject to a court order, for example. To find out if any relatives in your family might be involved in some activity. “
Privacy risks lurk in DNA tests, experts warn By Patrick Cain National Online Journalist, News Global News August 15, 2016 8:00 am globalnews.ca
“..But others are curious about the complex, highly personal information about you coded in your DNA: drug companies, insurers, sometimes police.
And once you put your cheek swab in the mail, you risk permanently losing control over a complete copy of your genetic data, linked to your real identity.
Should insurers see the secrets locked in your genes?
Liberal MP Rob Oliphant announces bill to prevent genetic discrimination
Internet of Things our ‘biggest threat to privacy,’ expert warns
“I think you have to assume that you’re going to lose control over that information,” warns Ann Cavoukian, a former Ontario privacy commissioner who runs the Privacy and Big Data Institute at Ryerson University…
Closing a 23andMe account doesn’t necessarily mean the company’s copy of your genetic data will disappear:
“We allow customers to close their accounts. It’s a bit complicated by our regulatory compliance for laboratories in the United States, which requires that raw information be held for a minimum of 10 years. The information will be de-identified, but will continue to be stored for that set amount of time.”…”
…Your genetic data can show your odds of getting diseases, like the BRCA1 genetic mutation that can mean a much higher risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Some diseases, like Huntington’s disease, are genetic, and susceptibility can be read from someone’s genetic information. With the science of genetics in its infancy, it’s impossible to know what can be told about you from your DNA in the future.
“With genetic data, it is very concrete, in terms of a road map to your physical conditions,” Cavoukian says….
“We are very clear that users own and control their data,” ancestry.com spokesperson Patrick Erlich wrote in an e-mail. “They can download it, ask us to delete it and destroy the sample, and can revoke their opt-in consent to participate in research projects at any time.”
“As disclosed in our policies, DNA samples are stored without personally identifying information at either a testing laboratory or other storage facility and may be kept by us unless or until circumstances require us to destroy the sample, or it is no longer suitable for testing purposes. ”
So what should an individual do? Like any other decision about digital privacy, the answer really comes down to your own comfort level, and how you perceive the trade-off between some information now and a potential privacy breach in the future…”
CORRECTION: Ancestry.com Hands Over Client DNA Test Results to Cops Witho̶u̶t̶ a Warrant*-
A pretty good way to discourage people from using gene testing services
Ronald Bailey|May. 6, 2015 1:11 pm reason.com/blog
Differences Between Companies
23andMe, Ancestry and Selling Your DNA Information 23andMe, Posted on December 30, 2015 dna-explained.com
“..However, opting out of his higher level DOES NOT stop the company from utilizing, sharing or selling your anonymized DNA and data. Anonymized data means your identity and what they consider identifying information has been removed.
Many people think that if you opt-out, your DNA and data is never shared or sold, but according to 23andMe and Ancestry’s own documentation, that’s not true. Opt-out is not truly opt-out. It’s only opting out of them sharing your non-anonymized data – meaning just the higher level of participation only. They still share your anonymized data in aggregated fashion…”
Uprooted: The dangers of DNA testing
Virginia Hughes | October 1, 2013 | MATTER geneticliteracyproject.org
“Searching your genetic ancestry can certainly be fun: You can trace the migration patterns of 10,000-year-old ancestors, or discover whether a distant relative ruled a continent or rode on the Mayflower. But the technology can just as easily unearth more private acts—infidelities, sperm donations, adoptions—of more recent generations, including previously unknown behaviors of your grandparents, parents, and even spouses. Family secrets have never been so vulnerable…”
Problems with AncestryDNA’s Genetic Ethnicity Prediction? Blaine Bettinger19 June 2012 201 Comments thegeneticgenealogist.com
Different Reference Populations and Algorithms
As I suggested above, different companies use different reference populations and algorithms to create a biogeographical estimate, which can result in varying estimates.
For example, in my previous review of AncestryDNA’s Genetic Ethnicity Prediction, I compared my genetic ethnicity results from three companies (Ancestry.com, 23andMe, and FTDNA), and found that their results varied considerably. I’m not surprised by this, but I do expect that over time – as the industry arrives at more standard reference populations and algorithms (which the cheap whole-genome sequencing revolution will enable) – that estimates from different companies will align much more closely. Be patient and enjoy being a pioneer…”
-Results didn’t show?
Ask Ancestry Anne: Where Is My Native American DNA? blogs.ancestry.com
“..So how much of your great-great-grandmother’s DNA are you likely to have? Probably around 1.5625%! And that may not be enough to detect Native American ethnicity.
If you can find older generations on that line to test, I recommend that. Also, get brothers, sisters and cousins tested. You never know who might have enough DNA to be detected.
Even if you find the DNA connection, you will still want to follow the paper trail. I recommend our Native American Research Guide to get you started.
Elie Dolgin January 18, 2011 Kurt Hoffman forward.com
DNA tests to uncover Jewish origins have been offered for decades by companies such as Houston-based Family Tree DNA and DNA Tribes of Arlington, Va. They have shown, for example, that many Hispanic Americans likely descended from Jews who were forced to convert or hide their religion more than 500 years ago in Spain and Portugal. Yet although standard ancestry-testing platforms can point to centuries-old Jewish origins, none would have flagged Pickrell’s relatively recent Semitic pedigree.
That’s because most DNA tests have traditionally relied on only two small parts of the genome: the Y-chromosome, which is passed down almost unchanged from father to son, and mitochondria, which mothers pass faithfully to their offspring. Because these stretches of DNA remain relatively consistent from one generation to the next, they are particularly useful for testing direct-line paternal and maternal ancestry, respectively; however, they essentially ignore the bulk of someone’s DNA ancestry and cannot detect genetic signatures that cross gender lines…
CeCe Moore, a 41-year-old amateur genealogist who runs a television production company in Orange County, Calif., is one such customer. In 2008, Moore tested her mitochondrial DNA and her father’s Y chromosome, but found no traces of Jewish heritage. Then, last year, she obtained her DNA readout from 23andMe and learned that a small but significant amount of her genome appeared to be of Ashkenazi origin…”
Ever got your DNA tested? Why or why not? What did you find out? Any other comments, suggestions, feedback, questions, etc… regarding the content above or not mentioned that you suggest me sharing here?
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Growing-up in the somewhat culturally diverse east-side of St. Paul in the 80’s, it was just a “norm” to just associate with any person with a diverse ethnic background….until my “middle school years”! “Race” somewhat became a “factor” on who you hung out with and who your friends were in this particular school. I didn’t like it! You can it was my “worst” years! Being “Asian-American” having friends with both “white” and “black” in elementary school, I felt like I had to choose what “race” to be “friends” with (see my personal racism story). Long-story short, why do we have to be “labeled” or “grouped” or “categorized”?…
‘The Cosby Show’ child star stuns Oprah: ‘I’m not African-American. I’m American.’ October 7, 2014 bizpacreview.com
“The former child actress who charmed America in “The Cosby Show” for most of the ‘80s shocked megastar Oprah Winfrey during a recent interview when she declared she considers herself “American,” not “African-American.”
“I’m proud to be who I am and what I am,” she said in an interview on the OWN network. “I want to be labeled ‘a human who loves humans.’”
…“I’m tired of being labeled. I’m an American. I’m not an African-American; I’m an American,” she said….
“I mean, I don’t know where my roots go to. I don’t know how far back they go…I don’t know what country in Africa I’m from, but I do know that my roots are in Louisiana. I’m an American. And that’s a colorless person.”…
…“What I really mean by that is I’m an American. That’s what I really mean,” Raven-Symone said. “I have darker skin. I have a nice, interesting grade of hair. I connect with Caucasian. I connect with Asian. I connect with black. I connect with Indian. I connect with each culture.”
Tired of the labels? How do you identify yourself?
Black parents give birth to white baby
By Andy Soltis
July 21, 2010 | 4:00am nypost.com
Couple Gives Birth to Twins: One Black, One White (03.25.11)
“Uploaded on Mar 25, 2011
Parents suffer grief, discrimination because of the medical rarity. For more, go here: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/twins-wh…“
Racist who wanted to create whites-only town proven to be of African descent
Published time: November 11, 2013 19:45
Edited time: November 12, 2013 16:19
White Supremacist Finds Out His Ancestors Were Black (VIDEO)
“Published on Nov 13, 2013
“A white supremacist behind an initiative to turn a North Dakota town into a “white enclave” received some shocking news — he’s not 100 percent white. Craig Cobb, a 62-year-old man who has aimed to start a community for white supremacists and neo-Nazis, received some news that he wasn’t too happy about.*” Cenk Uygur and John Iadarola of The Young Turks discuss.
Watch the full video here: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/11…”
1995 Video Surfaces of Barack Obama Revealing from conservativetribune.com
“..In his book “Dreams From My Father,” the future president…”
*shares about growing-up bi-racial and the struggles of it. He feels America is made up of groups in “isolation” and that some individuals long to be part of a group.
I (Sal) personally can relate to all these stories above as I grew-up with an “identity issue” (see racism testimony) myself. I hated labels growing-up. I remember growing-up in elementary school, race was no matter or issue. I had friends of all multicultural backgrounds. Then in Middle School (6th grade), the identity slowly became an issue.
I remember in high school, I joined a “cultural” group called the “Asian Club”, which many friends from diverse Asian ethnic backgrounds invited me. There was one remark that really “stabbed” me in the heart…
“You don’t even look Asian enough…your eyes are big” (paraphrase)
This was just one example of many out there growing-up that got me to struggle with my “true identity”. I was like, how Asian do I have to look (e.g. squinty eyes) to be in this club? My full name is Spanish (Salvador Cruz Monteagudo). I then tried to “hang out” with Filipinos more, but struggled too because I didn’t even speak the “native” language of my parents. In college, I even was more “welcomed” by the “United Latinos”!
It wasn’t until college when I felt a real belonging and race wasn’t an issue. I became a Christian and realize I’m part of God’s big family! However, there is still challenges amongst the “Christian” community on this multicultural issue, but what is mentioned in the Bible keeps me rooted and strong in my personal faith (walk with my “Heavenly Father”!
How did “labels” or “races” came about?
Race (human classification)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Early taxonomic models
…The 1735 classification of Carolus Linnaeus, inventor of zoological taxonomy, divided the human race Homo Sapiens into continental varieties of Europaeus, Asiaticus, Americanus and Afer, each associated with a different humour: sanguine, melancholic, choleric and phlegmatic respectively. Homo Sapiens Europaeus was described as active, acute, and adventurous whereas Homo Sapiens Afer was crafty, lazy, and careless...
Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“..This was a founding work for other scientists in the field of craniometry. He divided the human species into five races in 1779, later founded on crania research (description of human skulls), and called them (1793/1795):
the Caucasian or white race
the Mongolian or yellow race, including all East Asians and some Central Asians.
the Malayan or brown race, including Southeast Asian and Pacific Islanders.
the Ethiopian or black race, including sub-Saharan Africans.
the American or red race, including American Indians.
Answering Racism With The Bible
Are There Really Different Races?
by Ken Ham on November 29, 2007; last featured September 16, 2014 answersingenesis.org
“…To illustrate the basic genetic principles involved in determining skin shade, we’ll use a simplified explanation,26 with just two genes controlling the production of melanin. Let’s say that the A and B versions of the genes code for a lot of melanin, while the a and b versions code for a small amount of melanin.
If the father’s sperm carried the AB version and the mother’s ovum carried the AB, the child would be AABB, with a lot of melanin, and thus very dark skin. Should both parents carry the ab version, the child would be aabb, with very little melanin, and thus very light skin. If the father carries AB (very dark skin) and the mother carries ab (very light skin), the child will be AaBb, with a middle brown shade of skin. In fact, the majority of the world’s population has a middle brown skin shade.
A simple exercise with a Punnet Square shows that if each parent has a middle brown shade of skin (AaBb), the combinations that they could produce result in a wide variety of skin shades in just one generation. Based on the skin colors seen today, we can infer that Adam and Eve most likely would have had a middle brown skin color. Their children, and children’s children, could have ranged from very light to very dark.
No one really has red, or yellow, or black skin. We all have the same basic color, just different shades of it. We all share the same pigments—our bodies just have different combinations of them.27…”
“Published on May 4, 2015
Artist and photographer who came to UMM to study from Buffalo, Minn. She has earned national attention for her interactive photo project entitled “Native Enough” which features a variety of portraits of UMM Native American students describing what their heritage means to them. O’Leary has also served as a staff photographer for UMM’s Profile magazine and has her own photo business.
For more information visit: http://www.pioneer.org/postcards.html“
“There is only one race, and that’s the “human race”
Celebrating Confusion: The Crisis of Bruce (Not Caitlyn) Jenner
9:30AM EDT 6/2/2015 JOHN BURTON charismanews.com
“Bruce Jenner, talking about how people didn’t understand what he was going through even at the height of his Olympic success: “Little did they know I was totally empty inside.”
He then continues to share why he decided to go through with his gender transition: “I’m not doing this to be interesting. I’m doing this to live…”
NAACP leader Rachel Dolezal lied about being black
By Ramon Ramirez Jun 11, 2015, 10:34pm CT dailydot.com
“…Dolezal is by her family’s account white—Czech, Swedish, and German, with some Native American heritage, according to her mom—which is problematic given that she’s built an identity around being an African-American woman. And amid swirling controversy about Dolezal’s heritage on Thursday, she responded to KXLY4 reporter Jeff Humphrey’s query in telling fashion….
Race and Ethnicity pluralism.org
“The United States in the twenty-first century is home to perhaps the most diverse and varied Christian population on earth, with Christians of European, African, Asian, and Latin American birth or descent. This great racial and ethnic diversity poses both challenges and opportunities for America’s Christians. For Christians, overcoming racism and changing the structures of injustice that support racial exclusion is central to the reconciling work of the church. With the new immigration, beginning in 1965, the racial and ethnic diversity of American Christians has become greater than ever, recasting and making more complex the already difficult issues of race and ethnicity…
Justice for African Americans also remains on the agenda of Christian churches. The civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s involved the work, the leadership, and the commitment of many Christians, most prominently the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Inspired by the deepest values of Christianity, they sharply criticized those institutional structures and practices which had supported a racially segregated society and, in many cases, a racially segregated church….
While many gains have been made, race is still a major issue for the churches. Some local churches are still, in effect, racially segregated along black and white lines. Others, however, have intentionally cultivated racially inclusive congregations and have expressed a commitment to racial justice in their life of worship and service. …
Class, Culture and Ethnic Identity in Christ
Racial Harmony Sunday
January 17, 1999
by John Piper Scripture: Colossians 3:5-17 Topic: Racial Harmony desiringgod.org
What is this social identity issue caused from?…media? How can we combat it? Would love to hear your stories or personal experiences on this issue? What’s your solution? Feedback, suggestions, comments, etc.. are all welcomed!
*note: this is one of the never-ending blog topics, so keep coming back for new articles or links. Feel free to share any below that’s related that might help “seekers”