Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution encyclopedia.ushmm.org
The Holocaust is the best documented case of genocide. Despite this, calculating the numbers of individuals who were killed as the result of Nazi policies is an impossible task. There is no single wartime document that spells out how many people were killed. And in some cases, contrary to popular opinion, records were not kept.
Documenting Numbers of Victims
of the Holocaust & Nazi Persecution jewishvirtuallibrary.org
“…These estimates are calculated from wartime reports generated by those who implemented Nazi population policy, and postwar demographic studies on population loss during World War II.
Number of Deaths
Jews: up to 6 million
Soviet civilians: around 7 million (including 1.3 Soviet Jewish civilians, who are included in the 6 million figure for Jews)
Soviet prisoners of war: around 3 million (including about 50,000 Jewish soldiers)
Non-Jewish Polish civilians: around 1.8 million (including between 50,000 and 100,000 members of the Polish elites)
Serb civilians (on the territory of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina): 312,000
People with disabilities living in institutions: up to 250,000
Jehovah’s Witnesses: around 1,900
Repeat criminal offenders and so-called asocials: at least 70,000
German political opponents and resistance activists in Axis-occupied territory: undetermined
Homosexuals: hundreds, possibly thousands (possibly also counted in part under the 70,000 repeat criminal offenders and so-called asocials noted above)..”
Number of deaths in the WW2 per country
Top 10 Most Horrific Genocides In History toptenz.net
Top 10 Most Horrific Genocides In History
By Jeff Danelek on November 14, 2012 History
The term “genocide” is one of those controversial terms that can lead to all kinds of problems. The problem is that the term has been so politicized, and frequently used to attack leaders or countries that one dislikes, that it has come to mean different things to different people. For instance, the term has frequently been used to describe what white settlers did to the Native Americans over the last few centuries, when much of the indigenous population of the United States was wiped out. However, the overwhelming majority of those deaths were due to smallpox being inadvertently introduced into a native population that lacked the biological means to resist it which, while devastating, was not a genocide as it was not done intentionally.
For something to qualify as genocide, it has to be a deliberate, calculated decision by a particular ethnic or religious group, leader, or a government to exterminate, or otherwise destroy, a specific group of people for religious, cultural, racial, or political reasons. This can be done either through direct action (murder) or through indirect means (deportation or starvation). Using this general definition, then, what were the most horrific acts of genocide committed throughout history? It will always be something of an exercise in subjectivity to determine which were the worst, as how does one go about measuring such a thing? Is it a matter of sheer number of victims? Duration? Political ramifications? Nevertheless, here is my attempt to list the ten largest, most horrific, or best-known genocides in human history…”
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“..Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (German: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈluːɪtˌpɔlt ˈhɪmlɐ] (About this soundlisten); 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany. Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and one of the people most directly responsible for the Holocaust. ..
. From 1943 onwards, he was both Chief of German Police and Minister of the Interior, overseeing all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo (Secret State Police). Himmler had a lifelong interest in occultism, interpreting Germanic neopagan and Völkisch beliefs to promote the racial policy of Nazi Germany, and incorporating esoteric symbolism and rituals into the SS. ..
In August 1941, Himmler attended the shooting of 100 Jews at Minsk. Nauseated and shaken by the experience, he was concerned about the impact such actions would have on the mental health of his SS men. He decided that alternate methods of killing should be found. On his orders, by early 1942 the camp at Auschwitz had been greatly expanded, including the addition of gas chambers, where victims were killed using the pesticide Zyklon B. Himmler visited the camp in person on 17 and 18 July 1942. He was given a demonstration of a mass killing using the gas chamber..
The Nazis planned to kill Polish intellectuals and restrict non-Germans in the General Government and conquered territories to a fourth-grade education. The Nazis wanted to breed a master race of racially pure Nordic Aryans in Germany. As an agronomist and farmer Himmler was acquainted with the principles of selective breeding, which he proposed to apply to humans. He believed that he could engineer the German populace, for example, through eugenics, to be Nordic in appearance within several decades of the end of the war...”
*see GoodnewsEverybody.com: Middleeastern-Israelites Persecuted History middleeastern.goodnewseverybody.com
Holocaust speaker to be in Hancock, Morris By firstname.lastname@example.org on Nov 23, 2018 at 6:29 p.m. stevenscountytimes.com
“…After retiring as a professor from the University of Minnesota Minneapolis in 2001, where he was employed for 50 years as a professor of communication and creativity, Fred Amram has spent most of his time in retirement addressing his history as a Holocaust survivor. He’s given lectures to students, military members and government agencies, and published a memoir titled “We’re in America Now: A Survivor’s Stories,” which details his upbringing in Germany and in America.
Amram wrote about witnessing the national wave of violent anti-Jewish attacks known as Kristallnacht and the Gestapo raiding his home; he watched British bombers from his balcony, when Jews were banned from air raid shelters; he saw his father forced into slave labor; and he lost extended family members in the ghettos and concentration camps.
Amram will speak at the Stevens County Historical Society Museum at 7 p.m. on Tuesday, Nov. 27, and to students at Hancock Schools on Wednesday, Nov. 28, a news release said.
He was 2 when the Nazi Party passed the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, which deprived Jews of their citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having relations with Germans.
Amram and his parents would endure four more years of anti-Semitism, air raids and repeated Gestapo searches before fleeing their home in Hanover in November 1939. They eventually settled in New York City and were granted American citizenship. (It was less than two months ago when Amram regained his German Citizenship.)..”
Portraying Fred Amram
Published on Feb 27, 2014
Fred Amram was born September 19, 1933 in Hanover Germany, where he experienced the early years of the Holocaust. An only child, he and his parents found their way to Antwerp, Belgium in November 1939 before escaping later that month to New York City. For many years the family had no idea the fate their extended families members had suffered until Fred, learned after doing research at Yad Vashem that his 3 ½ year old cousin, Aaltje, and Aunt Käthe died at Auschwitz on February 19, 1943. After attending the New York State College of Forestry and graduating from Syracuse University, he became a graduate student at the University of Minnesota and ultimately a professor of Speech Communication in the University’s General College. He has published three academic books, and dozens of scholarly articles. He currently writes about his experiences in the Holocaust and as a refugee in his adopted country.
Glimpses of Jewish Life before the Holocaust – YouTube
The Development of the “Final Solution”
Hitler’s tipping point: When extermination of the Jews became official Nazi policy By JP O’ Malley 5 March 2017, 11:16 am timesofisrael.com
It was somewhere in the first half of 1942, argues Holocaust scholar Laurence Rees, that the Final Solution became the only solution
“..“The key thing to understanding [the Holocaust] in Lithuania is the hated occupation by the Soviets as the consequence of the Nazi-Soviet pact,” Rees explains.
“Many in Lithuania believed the lie that the Nazis were peddling at the time, that communism equals Judaism and that Jews were aiding the Soviet authorities,” the historian adds.
If there had not been the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states immediately preceding the Nazi invasion, Rees says the Holocaust in Lithuania might have gone very differently and many Jews could have possibly survived…
“The Nazis knew that if they kept shooting people they would have psychological problems for the killers. So the gas chambers solved this problem,” says Rees…”
*see Deep Thought: Where are the “original” Tribes of Israel? goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com
Nazi Collaborators 9: Jews Who Fought for Hitler
USTAŠE- THE FASCISTS THAT MADE THE NAZI’S LOOK LIKE BOYSCOUTS June 16, 2016 by dirkdeklein dirkdeklein.net
“..The ideology of the movement was a blend of fascism, Roman Catholicism and Croatian nationalism.The Ustaše supported the creation of a Greater Croatia that would span the River Drina and extend to the border of Belgrade.The movement emphasized the need for a racially “pure” Croatia and promoted genocide against Serbs, Jews and Romani people, and persecution of anti-fascist or dissident Croatians.
The Ustaše were fiercely Catholic, identifying it with Croatian nationalism. They declared that the Catholic and Muslim faiths were the religions of the Croatian people. They claimed the Islam of the Bosniaks was a religion which “keeps true the blood of Croats”.
“Increased activity of the bands [of rebels] is chiefly due to atrocities carried out by Ustaše units in Croatia against the Orthodox population. The Ustaše committed their deeds in a bestial manner not only against males of conscript age, but especially against helpless old people, women and children. The number of the Orthodox that the Croats have massacred and sadistically tortured to death is about three hundred thousand”
..The history textbooks in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia cited 700,000 as the total number of victims at Jasenovac. According to the Simon Wiesenthal Center (citing the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust), “Ustasa terrorists killed 500,000 Serbs, expelled 250,000 and forced 250,000 to convert to Catholicism. They murdered thousands of Jews and Gypsies.”..
In contrast, clergymen such as Archbishop of Mostar Alojzije Mišić and priest Marko Oršolić publicly condemned the Ustaše yet suffered no repression…
At the end of war, Ustaše continued fighting for a short while after the formal surrender of German Army Group E on 9 May 1945, and many refugees attempted to escape to Austria. Pavelić, however, with the help of associates among the Franciscans, managed to escape and hide in Austria and Rome, later fleeing to Argentina..”
World War II Serb Holocaust No Fiction MAY 12, 1994 nytimes.com
“..In June 1941, Milan Budak, then Croatian minister of education, is on record as stating that Croatia was to be a state of two religions: Roman Catholicism and Islam. Bosnia-Herzegovina was part of wartime Croatia, and the Bosnian Muslims were encouraged to massacre Serbs; the Bosnian Muslim Handzjar unit of the SS was particularly effective in this regard. According to Budak’s openly stated policy, Serbs should be dealt with in three ways: one-third to be exterminated, one-third deported and the rest converted to Catholicism…”
Croatia should apologize for World War II genocide before joining the EU April 2, 2010 By James Bissett csmonitor.com
‘…Just this week, the Serbian parliament apologized for its role in the infamous Srebrenica massacre of 1995 that killed some 7,000 Bosnian Muslims. Such an apology was considered unthinkable even a few years ago, yet the pressures of joining the EU helped nudge that nation to account for this war crime.
In 2001, Croatian President Stepjan Mesic apologized to Jews in an address delivered at the Israeli Knesset. In 2003, he joined Serbia’s president in a mutual apology for “all the evils” each side had brought during the Balkan conflict.
Bosnian Genocide history.com
“..In May 1993, the U.N. Security Council created the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) at The Hague, Netherlands. It was the first international tribunal since the Nuremberg Trials in 1945-46, and the first to prosecute genocide, among other war crimes.
..After a trial lasting more than four years and involving the testimony of nearly 600 witnesses, the ICTY found Mladic, who had been dubbed the “Butcher of Bosnia,” guilty of genocide and other crimes against humanity in November 2017. The tribunal sentenced the 74-year-old former general to life in prison. Coming on the heels of Karadzic’s conviction for war crimes the previous year, Mladic’s long-delayed conviction marked the last major prosecution by the ICTY.
In Germany’s extermination program for black Africans, a template for the Holocaust By Edwin Black 5 May 2016, 12:05 pm 32 25,491 timesofisrael.com
Decades before the Nazis turned to the Jews, German colonialists in Southwest Africa – now Namibia – dehumanized, built death camps for, and slaughtered tens of thousands of tribespeople in a systematic genocide. Here, Edwin Black reveals the full horrors of an eerie and odious precursor of the Shoah, and its legacy in the US
“..Beginning in 1884, Germany colonized four territories across the breadth of the continent: Togoland, the Cameroons, Tanganyika, and a main coastal presence in Southwest Africa, now known as Namibia. In Southwest Africa, German settlers were able to establish lucrative plantations by exploiting the labor of local Herero and Nama (also known as Hottentot) indigenous peoples. German banks and industrialists combined to provide needed economic support and investment. Berlin dispatched a small military contingent to protect white settlers as they confronted the lightly armed African natives considered subhuman in Germany’s twisted notion of racial hierarchy…”
Why Do People Still Deny The Holocaust?
5 Facts That The Holocaust Never Happened
Published on Jun 19, 2017
Jews and the African Slave Trade BY MJL myjewishlearning.com
Like many others, Jews participated in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but they by no means dominated it.
“..The participants in the Atlantic slave system included Arabs, Berbers, scores of African ethnic groups, Italians, Portuguese, Spaniards, Dutch, Jews, Germans, Swedes, French, English, Danes, white Americans, Native Americans, and even thousands of New World blacks who had been emancipated or were descended from freed slaves but who then became slaveholding farmers or planters themselves.
Davis went on to note that in the American South in 1830 there were “120 Jews among the 45,000 slaveholders owning twenty or more slaves and only twenty Jews among the 12,000 slaveholders owning fifty or more slaves.”…”
HISTORY: Jewish Slavetrade Documentary
Ford’s Anti-Semitism .pbs.org
“..Henry Ford’s anti-Semitic views echoed the fears and assumptions of many Americans in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Anti-Semitism in America saw a change in expression and virulence when increased immigration from Europe brought millions of Jews to the U.S. during Ford’s childhood in the latter half of the 19th century. It reached its peak during the mid-1920s: a time when Ku Klux Klanmembership had reached four million, Prohibition restricted alcohol consumption, and discriminatory immigration policies were enacted favoring immigrants from northern and western Europe over other parts of the world.
A close friend recalled a camping trip in 1919 during which Ford lectured a group around the campfire. He “attributes all evil to Jews or to the Jewish capitalists,” the friend wrote in his diary. “The Jews caused the war, the Jews caused the outbreak of thieving and robbery all over the country, the Jews caused the inefficiency of the navy…”..
What did the Jewish community think about Ford’s paper?
For the Jews who are reading Ford’s rants in The Dearborn Independent, this is very frightening. Jewish publications in English and in Yiddish are reporting on the material that comes out in The Dearborn Independent. They’re really tracking this…
In 1938, Ford received an award from the Nazi regime called the “Grand Cross of the German Eagle.” How do we make sense of this award? What does it mean?
The Germans honor Ford, we could say, for a couple reasons. ..
From the point of view of anti-Semitism, Hitler could look at Ford as somebody who was — let’s call him an age-mate. They were both in the 1920s beginning to write and disseminate information about what they both considered to be this great powerful threat, “the Jew.”..
How American Racism Influenced Hitler- Scholars are mapping the international precursors of Nazism. By Alex Ross April 30, 2018 Issue
“..The Nazis idolized many aspects of American society: the cult of sport, Hollywood production values, the mythology of the frontier. From boyhood on, Hitler devoured the Westerns of the popular German novelist Karl May. In 1928, Hitler remarked, approvingly, that white settlers in America had “gunned down the millions of redskins to a few hundred thousand.” When he spoke of Lebensraum, the German drive for “living space” in Eastern Europe, he often had America in mind…
Ron Rosenbaum, in his 1998 book “Explaining Hitler,” gives a tour of the more outré theories. It has been suggested, variously, that the key to understanding Hitler is the fact that he had an abusive father; that he was too close to his mother; that he had a Jewish grandfather; that he had encephalitis; that he contracted syphilis from a Jewish prostitute; that he blamed a Jewish doctor for his mother’s death; that he was missing a testicle; that he underwent a wayward hypnosis treatment; that he was gay; that he harbored coprophilic fantasies about his niece; that he was addled by drugs; or—a personal favorite—that his anti-Semitism was triggered by briefly attending school with Ludwig Wittgenstein, in Linz. At the root of this speculative mania is what Rosenbaum calls the “lost safe-deposit box” mentality: with sufficient sleuthing, the mystery can be solved in one Sherlockian stroke…
American eugenicists made no secret of their racist objectives, and their views were prevalent enough that F. Scott Fitzgerald featured them in “The Great Gatsby.” (The cloddish Tom Buchanan, having evidently read Lothrop Stoddard’s 1920 tract “The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy,” says, “The idea is if we don’t look out the white race will be—will be utterly submerged.”) California’s sterilization program directly inspired the Nazi sterilization law of 1934. There are also sinister, if mostly coincidental, similarities between American and German technologies of death. In 1924, the first execution by gas chamber took place, in Nevada. In a history of the American gas chamber, Scott Christianson states that the fumigating agent Zyklon-B, which was licensed to American Cyanamid by the German company I. G. Farben, was considered as a lethal agent but found to be impractical. Zyklon-B was, however, used to disinfect immigrants as they crossed the border at El Paso—a practice that did not go unnoticed by Gerhard Peters, the chemist who supplied a modified version of Zyklon-B to Auschwitz. Later, American gas chambers were outfitted with a chute down which poison pellets were dropped. Earl Liston, the inventor of the device, explained, “Pulling a lever to kill a man is hard work. Pouring acid down a tube is easier on the nerves, more like watering flowers.” Much the same method was introduced at Auschwitz, to relieve stress on S.S. guards…
When Hitler praised American restrictions on naturalization, he had in mind the Immigration Act of 1924, which imposed national quotas and barred most Asian people altogether. For Nazi observers, this was evidence that America was evolving in the right direction, despite its specious rhetoric about equality. The Immigration Act, too, played a facilitating role in the Holocaust, because the quotas prevented thousands of Jews, including Anne Frank and her family, from reaching America. In 1938, President Roosevelt called for an international conference on the plight of European refugees; this was held in Évian-les-Bains, France, but no substantive change resulted. The German Foreign Office, in a sardonic reply, found it “astounding” that other countries would decry Germany’s treatment of Jews and then decline to admit them…”
History of the Jews in the Philippines
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“..It was during the era of the Philippine Commonwealth, 1935–1946, that Jewish refugees from Europe sought a safe haven in Manila. The migration of Jews escaping Europe between 1935 and 1941 was the last major immigration of Jews to the Philippines. The first German Jews to arrive in Manila actually came from the Jewish community in Shanghai. With the occupation of Peking by the Japanese in 1937, the four million inhabitants of Shanghai were endangered. Germany’s shift of alliance from China to Japan at this time alarmed German Jews in Shanghai, fearing German pressure on Japan to adopt Nazi anti-Jewish policies. Fearing for them as well, the Jewish Community in Manila, led by the Frieder Brothers of Cincinnati, organized the Jewish Refugee Committee of Manila (JRC) with the intention of rescuing German members of the Shanghai Jewish community. These Jews had already been deprived of their German citizenship, and the Gestapo presence that was taking root in Japanese areas threatened Jewish existence in Shanghai as well. When the Sino-Japanese War broke out in 1937, the JRC received a telegram from Shanghai asking for assistance for Shanghai’s refugee Jews. With the help of Feng-Shan Ho, the Chinese Consul-General in Austria, Austrian Jews were able to escape to other countries, including the Philippines, when Adolf Hitler annexed Austria to Germany in 1938. Manila then received 30 German Jewish refugee families from Shanghai, which then started a larger program that would eventually rescue 1300 refugee Jews from Europe between 1937 and 1941, the largest influx of Jews in Philippine history. ..
While it was important to have the cooperation and consent of President Quezon in this refugee rescue plan, all issues of Philippine foreign affairs was still totally in the hands of the U.S. State Department and would be until the Philippines was granted independence in 1946. What is unique to the rescue of refugee Jews in the Philippines is that the Jewish Community in Manila was granted authority by High Commissioner Paul McNutt and Philippine President Quezon to operate a selection committee to choose those who would be granted visas by the U.S. State Department. By an application and review process, Jewish refugees in Germany and Austria obtained visas for immigration from U.S. consular officers who had been instructed by the U.S. State Department to issue visas based on recommendations from the JRC in Manila. This successful Frieder-McNutt selection rescue plan led to the larger resettlement rescue plan that focused on the island of Mindanao as a destination for the mass resettlement of 10,000 refugee Jews. For the refugees who did manage to settle in the Philippines, the JRC organised committees to aid in finding employment and new homes for them in Manila..”
Stories of Rescues
“..Key to the Philippines’ decision to open its door to Jewish refugees was the lobbying of the Frieder family of Cincinnati, four of whose sons took turns running a family-owned tobacco factory in Manila. One of the brothers, Alex Frieder, played poker regularly with Manuel Quezon, president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. They were joined by Paul V. McNutt, the American high commissioner, and Col. Dwight D. Eisenhower, who at the time was serving as an American military adviser to the Filipino army. ..”
An Open Door The Story of Rescue of Over 1300 Jews by … – YouTube
ISRAEL: “Thank You, Philippines!” (Why Jews have a Close Friendship with Filipinos) February 18, 2015 ourawesomeplanet.com
“..In November 2013, Danny Pins, who is the son of a Holocaust Survivor in Manila, Margot Casell Pins, joined the American-Jewish Joint Distribution Committee to be the first ones on the ground in Tacloban and help the Typhoon Haiyan Victims…”
Global Country Spotlight: Europe-Germany goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com
On-going Ant-Semitism (anti-Semitic )
MMohamed Mohamed, LA Hate Crime Suspect: 5 Fast Facts By Erin Laviola Updated Nov 26, 2018 at 5:33 heavy.com
“..Mohamed Mohamed is the 32-year-old suspect accused of trying to run down two Jewish men in Los Angeles with his vehicle. The incident happened on November 23, 2018, as the two worshippers left a synagogue in the neighborhood of Hancock Park. ..
The FBI has also joined the investigation, as officials look into the suspect’s background. Officials said Mohamed was born in Somalia and had been in the Los Angeles area for only a few days prior to the incident.
Here’s what you need to know…”
What can be done to fight anti-Semitism in the US? | The Stream
Robert Bowers appears in court after Pittsburgh synagogue massacre
11 Killed in Pittsburgh Synagogue Shooting; Gunman Yelled ‘All Jews Must Die’ Amir Tibon, Noa Landau, Judy Maltz, The Associated Press and Allison Kaplan Sommer Oct 28, 2018 1:05 AM haaretz.com
Pittsburgh synagogue shooting: Who is suspect Robert Bowers?
Published on Oct 27, 2018
Robert Bowers, 46, of Pittsburgh, the man arrested in the mass shooting Saturday at a Pennsylvania synagogue during a bris, appears to have made virulently anti-Semitic posts on a social media platform popular with far-right extremists, including one made shortly before the attack.
(Video by Janet Pickel, PennLive.com, via Wochit)
Synagogue shooter was obsessed with Jewish refugee agency The Associated Press | Tuesday, Oct. 30, 2018, 11:36 a.m. triblive.com
“.. Just moments before the Pittsburgh synagogue shooting that left 11 people dead, the suspect is believed to have posted a final social media rant against a Jewish refugee settlement agency most people had never heard of, but which has increasingly become the target of right-wing rage and conspiracy theories. ..”
Robert Bowers, Pittsburgh Shooting Suspect, Appears in Court
By Campbell Robertson Oct. 29, 2018 .nytimes.com
“..The Pittsburgh chapter of Bend the Arc: Jewish Action, a progressive Jewish group focused on social justice in the United States, said in an open letter to Mr. Trump that he was “not welcome in Pittsburgh until you fully denounce white nationalism.”
The letter, which had 26,000 signatures on Monday morning, said Mr. Trump’s language had given confidence to white nationalists.
“For the past three years your words and your policies have emboldened a growing white nationalist movement,” the letter said. “You yourself called the murderer evil, but yesterday’s violence is the direct culmination of your influence.”..”
America’s dark history of organized anti-Semitism re-emerges in today’s far-right groups
November 29, 2018 6.38am EST theconversation.com
Some forms of American anti-Semitism have been examined and confronted. Many existed at the local level and had a major impact on Jewish communities all over the U.S.
For decades, restrictive covenants in home deeds forbade Jews from buying homes in certain neighborhoods. Some country clubs excluded Jews from membership or even playing their courses as guests. Some Ivy League universities set quotas limiting the number of Jewish students they would admit…”