Global Regional Spotlight: Pacific-Oceania Islands

The History of Oceania: Every Year

Oceania From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia wikipedia.org
“..is a geographic region comprising Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia.[4] Spanning the eastern and western hemispheres, Oceania covers an area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and has a population of 40 million. Situated in the southeast of the Asia-Pacific region, Oceania, when compared to continental regions, is the smallest in land area and the second smallest in population after Antarctica…”

Chamorro DNA Studies and the Origin of the Chamorro People guampedia.com
“…Analysis of the specific E1 and E2 haplogroups of the Chamorros showed they were not present outside the Mariana Islands. This pattern indicates that a founder effect occurred. A founder effect is when an original founding population arrives, becomes isolated, and over time, results in a new population that has only a small amount of the genetic variation seen in the original population. In the Marianas, the founding E1 and E2 haplogroup lineages arrived from Island Southeast Asia around 4,000 years ago and after 3,500 years in isolation, the two lineages acquired the mutations that gave rise to the unique genetic lineage seen in the Marianas. The scientists also believe the initial arrival of the Marianas population may have occurred even earlier, maybe 5,000 years ago.

..

While eager to work with Chamorros who are interested in their genetic origins and connections, Vilar understands the necessity of being respectful and sensitive to the needs of the community. As research is not done in a vacuum, researchers should always work under a strict code of ethics that includes treating people who provide samples with respect and dignity. Vilar works only with live individuals and not ancient skeletal remains. In addition, he plans to share his research with his informants before he publishes his findings, perhaps in another two years.’

New Guam Museum exhibit tells Chamorro people’s story – YouTube

Genetic History of the Pacific Islands: Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia

Australasia

-Tarawa

Melanesia

Melanesia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“..The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Fiji, and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. Most of the region is in the Southern Hemisphere, with a few small northwestern islands of Western New Guinea in the Northern Hemisphere…”

Micronesia

Micronesia From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“..Micronesia is divided politically among several sovereign countries. One of these is the Federated States of Micronesia, which is often called “Micronesia” for short and is not to be confused with the overall region. The Micronesia region encompasses five sovereign, independent nations—the Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands and Nauru—as well as three U.S. territories in the northern part: Northern Mariana Islands, Guam and Wake Island…”

Palau

Kiribati

Kiribati: a drowning paradise in the South Pacific | DW Documentary

Marshall Islands

Nauru

U.S. Territories

Northern Mariana Islands

=>Saipan

Saipan & Tinian, CNMI (America’s Forgotten Colonies, Part 3/3)

Chamorro man supports theory that Earhart was held prisoner on Saipan Jerick Sablan, jpsablan@guampdn.com Published 2:19 p.m. ChT Nov. 25, 2017 | Updated 9:39 a.m. ChT Nov. 28, 2017 guampdn.com
“..A Chamorro man with ties to Saipan shared information that promotes a theory that Amelia Earhart was brought to the island and held prisoner 80 years ago.

William “Bill” Sablan said his uncle Tun Akin Tuho worked at the prison where Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan were taken prisoner in Saipan.

The History Channel shared the theory that the two were taken prisoner in a recent TV special called “Amelia Earhart: The Lost Evidence.”

Eighty years after Earhart made her voyage around the world, people are still trying to figure out what happened to the famed pilot…”

Guam

Guam: Why America’s Most Isolated Territory Exists

Should U.S. Territories Like Guam Be Independent? | AJ+

Wake Island

Polynesia

*see Hawaii: Polynesian Cultural Center in Oahu smiletravelingblog.wordpress.com

Now you Know: History of Resources in Changing Times

Standing Rock and the Dakota Access Pipeline drcinfo.org

“…Furthermore, this characterization of water protector violence is a distraction from the lawlessness the state administration has allowed to occur in the Bakken, the heart of oil and gas extraction. The State does not seem to be concerned with the seemingly constant environmental crimes that occur from countless oil and salt water spills, wasted uncaptured natural gas, and abandoned radioactive waste. The companies responsible of these crimes are not fined or taken to jail. The damage to farmers, ranchers, and others who’ve lived and worked here are considered by the state as “collateral damage” and efforts to help are rejected by the Oil and gas extraction has brought in a massive influx of out-of-state workers, overwhelming demands for infrastructure, urban sprawl, and negative social impacts to communities…”

The “Indian Problem”


“Published on Mar 3, 2015

As American power and population grew in the 19th century, the United States gradually rejected the main principle of treaty-making—that tribes were self-governing nations—and initiated policies that undermined tribal sovereignty. For Indian nations, these policies resulted in broken treaties, vast land loss, removal and relocation, population decline, and cultural decimation.

The “Indian Problem” was produced to serve as the central video in the exhibition “Nation to Nation: Treaties Between the United States and American Indian Nations,” on view at the National Museum of the American Indian in Washington, DC. This video introduces visitors to the section of the exhibition titled “Bad Acts, Bad Paper.””
*see Deep Thought: Broken Promises-Who to trust? goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

Two Approaches to Economic Development on American Indian Reservations: One Works, the Other Doesn’t · January 2006 with 21 Reads researchgate.net
“..There are concrete, bottom-line payoffs to tribal self-rule. For example, a Harvard Project study of
75 tribes with significant timber resources found that, for every timber-related job that moved
from BIA forestry to tribal forestry—that is, for every job that moved from federal control to tribal
control—prices received and productivity in the tribe’s timber operations rose.
16
On average,
tribes do a better job of managing their forests because these are their forests.

But the evidence is even broader. After fifteen years of research and work in Indian Country, we
cannot find a single case of sustained economic development in which an entity other than the
Indian nation is making the major decisions about development strategy, resource use, or internal
organization. In short, practical sovereignty appears to be a necessary (but not sufficient) condition
for reservation economic development. ..”

Global Connections . Natural Resources | PBS pbs.org

“…

Like oil and water

The Middle East has always had a rich abundance of natural resources, although which resources are coveted and valued has changed over time. Today, abundant petroleum fields dominate the area’s economy. The Middle East is similarly disproportionately rich in natural gas (32 percent of the world’s known natural gas reserves are in the region) and phosphate (Morocco alone has more than half of the world’s reserves).

Water has always been an important resource in the Middle East — for its relative scarcity rather than its abundance. Disputes over rights to water (for example, building a dam in one country upstream from another) are a fundamental part of the political relationships in the region. Water for irrigation is necessary for many of the ecosystems to sustain crops…”

Humans and Energy: Crash Course World History 207


“Published on Aug 28, 2014

In which Stan Muller subs for John Green and teaches you about energy and humanity. Today we discuss the ideas put forth by Alfred Crosby in his book, Children of the Sun. Historically, almost all of the energy that humans use has been directly or indirectly generated by the sun, whether that be food energy from plants, wind energy, direct solar energy, or fossil fuels. Stan looks into these different sources, and talks about how humanity will continue to use energy in the future as populations grow and energy resources become more scarce.

You can directly support Crash Course at https://www.patreon.com/crashcourse Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we’re doing. Free is nice, but if you can afford to pay a little every month, it really helps us to continue producing this content.

SUBBABLE SPONSOR MESSAGES!
TO: Dana
FROM: Cameron
you’re wonderful, I can’t wait for our faces to meet 🙂

TO: TheGeekyBlonde
FROM: Arbace

Thanks for your outstanding Youtube Abuse Recovery video! http://youtu.be/3Uc5eNNG60o

You can get Alfred Crosby’s Children of the Sun here: http://smile.amazon.com/Children-Sun-…”

How resource scarcity is driving the third Industrial Revolution mckinsey.com
“..Will shortages of energy, materials, food, and water put the brakes on global growth? Far from it. By combining information technology with industrial technology, as well as through harnessing materials science and biotechnology, innovators are showing that it is possible to produce more with less and to access resources at far lower costs…”

The End Of The Oil Age, How Much Is Left And What Will Happen When We Run Out


“…What we use it for-
Oil is the life blood that is pumped though our modern world, with out it we could not fly to popular holiday destinations, travel to work in the comfort of our vehicles or maybe even watch this video on YouTube, plus many more little perks of modern life. We rely on oil to power many applications within our lives and as of early 2015, the IEA Oil Market Report forecast the average demand would be 34 billion barrels of oil for the year. At this rate, how long can we go on pumping oil out of the ground without exhausting our supplies?
..”

The Hidden Costs of Fossil Fuels ucsusa.org
The costs of coal, natural gas, and other fossil fuels aren’t always obvious—but their impacts can be disastrous.
“..There are two main methods for removing fossil fuels from the ground: mining and drilling. Mining is used to extract solid fossil fuels, such as coal, by digging, scraping, or otherwise exposing buried resources. Drilling methods help extract liquid or gaseous fossil fuels that can be forced to flow to the surface, such as conventional oil and natural gas. Both processes carry serious health and environmental impacts…”

Why can’t we quit fossil fuels? theguardian.com
“..So coal use kept rising too – and oil use in turn kept increasing as cleaner gas, nuclear and hydro came on stream, helping power the digital age, which unlocked more advanced technologies capable of opening up harder-to-read fossil-fuel reserves…

Indeed, though our governments now subsidise clean-power sources and efficient cars and buildings – and encourage us all to use less energy – they are continuing to undermine all that by ripping as much oil, coal and gas out of the ground as possible. And if their own green policies mean there isn’t a market for these fuels at home, then no matter: they can just be exported instead…
This extraordinary double-think is everywhere to be seen. Take the US. Obama boasts that American emissions are now falling due to rising auto efficiency standards and gas displacing dirtier coal in the energy mix. But the US is extracting carbon and flowing it into the global energy system faster than ever before. Its gas boom has simply allowed it to export more of the coal to other countries such as China – which of course uses it partly to produce goods for US markets. Not happy with increasing US carbon extraction, Obama is also set to approve the Keystone XL Pipeline that will enable Canada to flood the global markets with crude produced from dirty tar sands. So much for carbon cuts.
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Or take Australia, which in the same year introduced a carbon tax and started debating plans for a series of “mega-mines” that would massively increase its coal exports, helping build confidence among the companies and governments planning no fewer than 1,200 new coal-fired power stations around the world. Even the UK, with its world-leading carbon targets, gives tax-breaks to encourage oil and gas recovery and has been growing its total carbon footprint by relying ever more on Chinese factories – and therefore indirectly its reliance on American and Australian coal. And not just that. Although it rarely gets commented on, Britain – along with other supposedly green nations such as Germany – regularly begs Saudi Arabia and the other Opec nations to produce not less oil, but more. As journalist George Monbiot once put it, nations are trying simultaneously to “reduce demand for fossil fuels and increase supply”…

How would all this affect the global economy, or pension funds, or the financial health of the Middle East, the US and other carbon-rich nations doing most to resist a global climate deal? For all the confident opinion on both sides, no one can say for sure, just as no one can be certain how human society will fare in a warming world. But with so much money and power bound up with oil, coal and gas, one thing seems clear: constraining global fossil fuel supplies will take bigger thinking, harder politics and – crucially – a whole lot more public pressure. Voluntary carbon cuts are a great start but they are no match for a system-level feedback in human energy use…”

-Natural Gas

Will Natural Gas Power the Future? August 9, 2012 pbs.org
“Colorado, like many other states around the country, gets most of its energy from burning coal. Skeptics have criticized coal for being a pollutant, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has increased regulations on emissions from electric power plants, thereby making companies scale back their involvement with coal.

In order to meet the EPA guidelines, some power plants in Colorado are converting some of their plants to burn natural gas instead of coal, and shutting some coal-burning plants down altogether.

Natural gas is currently cheaper than coal and more environmentally friendly. It was therefore an easy decision for U.S. Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar to endorse as a centerpiece of his platform for America’s energy future.

At the same time, the low prices of natural gas are making it difficult for renewable energy sources like wind and solar to make a case for being cost-effective. While environmentalists are worried that the push for natural gas will simply get us hooked on another fossil fuel, Salazar says that the government will continue to pursue both gas and renewable energy sources going forward.

However, change may be slow and coal companies are not willing to give up their market share to newcomers. It is estimated that at the end of the decade, 48% of our energy will still come from coal-fired plants, but natural gas and renewables will make up a larger market share than ever before. “

-Racism?
*see Deep Thought: Does it matter if your part of another “ethnicity or race”? goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

Avatar hit by accusations of racism
By Anita Singh, Showbusiness Editor

6:31PM GMT 11 Jan 2010 telegraph.co.uk

James Cameron’s $1 billion sci-fi epic Avatar has been hit by accusations of racism.
“..vatar is set on a distant planet populated by the Na’vi, an eco-conscious, blue-skinned alien tribe with no understanding of modern technology. A disabled Marine, played by the Australian actor Sam Worthington, is sent to infiltrate the tribe but soon “goes native” and leads them in a defence of their homeland against the white invaders.

He also falls in love with an alien woman, who rejects a Na’vi suitor and becomes his wife. The main Na’vi characters are played by black actors, including Zoe Saldana and Laz Alonso.

David Brooks, a columnist writing in the New York Times, said: “Avatar is a racial fantasy par excellence … It rests on the stereotype that white people are rationalist and technocratic while colonial victims are spiritual and athletic. It rests on the assumption that non-whites need the White Messiah to lead their crusades. It rests on the assumption that illiteracy is the path to grace…

The ruthless treatment of the Na’vi has been interpreted as a metaphor for the plight of American Indians. Brooks said Avatar followed a long tradition of “white Messiah” movies which began in the 1970s with A Man Called Horse, , starring Richard Harris as an English aristocrat who is captured by a Sioux Indian tribe and becomes their leader, and which includes Kevin Costner’s Dances With Wolves and the Tom Cruise film, The Last Samurai…”
*see Avatar the Movie Reflections-Importance of Cultural Awareness goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

-Conflict
*see Deep Thought: Is “Oil” causing wars? goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

9 Wars That Were Really About Commodities Mamta Badkar Aug. 15, 2012, 2:27 PM businessinsider.com
“..The recent rise in tensions over the disputed South China Sea has drawn attention to the possibility that the conflict is really about natural resources located in the islands of the South China Sea.

With the help of Waverly Advisors we point out that wars over commodities go back centuries.

We re-examine the real motivations behind the Pearl Harbor attack and the German invasion of Russia. We also consider more current geo-political tensions that are being driven by commodities…”

Iron, Steel and Oil – The Fight For Resources I THE GREAT WAR Week 18


“Published on Nov 27, 2014

Four months after the outbreak of the war, a new objective develops: the fight for the most valuable resources. The modern warfare and its war machines need one thing more than anything: Oil, iron, steel or cole can be a matter of life and death. The British advance into the Ottoman Empire and conquer the city Basra. Their goal is to secure their drilling facilities at the Arab Gulf. Meanwhile, the situation at the front is gridlocked, especially in the trenches on the Western Front.

The communication and organisation in the trenches becomes far more complex in course of time. If you want to know how life was in the trenches and how the structure works, click here and watch our special about trenches: http://bit.ly/1vT9Wxr

» HOW CAN I SUPPORT YOUR CHANNEL?
You can support us by sharing our videos with your friends and spreading the word about our work.You can also support us financially on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/thegreatwar

Patreon is a platform for creators like us, that enables us to get monthly financial support from the community in exchange for cool perks.

-Syria & Russia vs. U.S. & Allies (e.g. Turkey, Saudi Arabia, etc..)?
*see Peace: Avoiding War?

Refugee Crisis & Syria War Fueled By Competing Gas Pipelines By Mnar Muhawesh @mnarmuh | September 9, 2015 mintpressnews.com
“…Media outlets and political talking heads have found many opportunities to point fingers in the blame game, but not one media organization has accurately broken down what’s driving the chaos: control over gas, oil and resources.

Indeed, it’s worth asking: How did demonstrations held by “hundreds” of protesters demanding economic change in Syria four years ago devolve into a deadly sectarian civil war, fanning the flames of extremism haunting the world today and creating the world’s second largest refugee crisis?

While the media points its finger to Syrian President Bashar Assad’s barrel bombs and political analysts call for more airstrikes against ISIS and harsher sanctions against Syria, we’re four years into the crisis and most people have no idea how this war even got started…

Foreign meddling in Syria began several years before the Syrian revolt erupted. Wikleaks released leaked US State Department cables from 2006 revealing U.S. plans to overthrow the Syrian government through instigating civil strife, and receiving these very orders straight from Tel Aviv. The leaks reveal the United State’s partnership with nations like Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Qatar and even Egypt to use sectarianism to divide Syria through the Sunni and Shiite divide to destabilize the nation to weaken Iran and Hezbolla. Israel is also revealed to attempt to use this crisis to expand its occupation of the Golan Heights for additional oil exploration, according to Wikileaks editor Julian Assange…

It’s no secret that Syria’s government is a major arms, oil and gas, and weapons ally of Iran and Lebanon’s resistance political group Hezbollah.

But it’s important to note the timing: This coalition and meddling in Syria came about immediately on the heels of discussions of an Iran-Iraq-Syria gas pipeline that was to be built between 2014 and 2016 from Iran’s giant South Pars field through Iraq and Syria. With a possible extension to Lebanon, it would eventually reach Europe, the target export market…

This “civil war” is not about religion..”
*see Neutral Perspective: Pro & Anti-Pipeline

Thoughts, feedback, comments, etc..?

Good News Education
https://www.facebook.com/groups/707482649266495/

Deep Thought: What “good” has come out of this #StandingRock ?

Awareness of Native Tribes

Since this movement, the nation and worlds’ interest has grown on understanding of knowing more of the indigenous people..

Standing rock news | standing rock protest | 7 history lessons of the Dakota Access Pipeline


“Published on Nov 18, 2016

standing rock news | standing rock protest | 7 history lessons that help explain the Dakota Access Pipeline protests
The safety of the water supply is the immediate issue at Standing Rock, but the discussions at camp go well beyond Dakota Access. There’s talk of treaties, discovery doctrines, environmental racism and centuries of unkept promises undergirding the pipeline fight.
Thank you for seeing our videos
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If you like our videos, please subscribe to the channel to receive the next videos:: https://goo.gl/c9tZ9d”

From 280 Tribes, a Protest on the Plains By JACK HEALY SEPT. 11, 2016 Related Article nytimes.com
“NEAR CANNON BALL, N.D. — When visitors turn off a narrow North Dakota highway and drive into the Sacred Stone Camp, where thousands have come to protest an oil pipeline, they thread through an arcade of flags whipping in the wind. Each represents one of the 280 Native American tribes that have flocked here in what activists are calling the largest, most diverse tribal action in at least a century, perhaps since Little Bighorn.

They have come from across the Plains and the Mountain West, from places like California, Florida, Peru and New Zealand. They are Oglala Lakota, Navajo, Seneca, Onondaga and Anishinaabe. Their names include Keeyana Yellowman, Peter Owl Boy, Santana Running Bear and Darrell Holy Eagle.

Some came alone, driving 24 hours straight across the Plains when they saw news on social media about the swelling protest. Some came in caravans with dozens of friends and relatives. One man walked from Bismarck. ..”

“Celebrities” and Known Leaders “Standing-up”

Passionate Mark Ruffalo Amazing Uncut Speech At Standing Rock #wniwiconi #Share! 11/18/16 , from youtube.com

Susan Sarandon irate over North Dakota pipeline from youtube.com

Legislation Pressure on the Oil Pipeline Industry

Feds Order Correction to Plan to North Dakota Pipeline Owner By The Associated Press BILLINGS, Mont. — Dec 21, 2016, 2:59 PM ET abcnews.go.com
“… Federal regulators have outlined corrective steps that must take place before a company may restart a pipeline that leaked 176,000 gallons of oil into and along a creek in western North Dakota.

The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration issued the order Tuesday to Belle Fourche (foosh) Pipeline Co.

Company spokeswoman Wendy Owen says the order is under review.

A landowner spotted the spill Dec. 5, after the company’s monitoring equipment failed to detect the rupture.

The company says erosion of a hillside might have ruptured the pipe, but the cause is still being investigated. A precise location of the break is unknown.

The federal agency’s order requires the company to excavate the pipeline in the area of the break, including where it’s placed 45 feet below the creek bed…”
*see North Dakota: Oil Impact on Communities Archives

“… President Barack Obama’s administration is expected to push through long-delayed safety measures for the nation’s sprawling network of oil pipelines in its final days, despite resistance from industry and concern that incoming president Donald Trump may scuttle them.

The measures are aimed at preventing increasingly frequent accidents such as a 176,000-gallon spill that fouled a North Dakota creek earlier this month. Thousands more spills over the past decade caused $2.5 billion in damages nationwide and dumped almost 38 million gallons of fuel.

Fights over pipelines have intensified in recent years, illustrated by the dispute over TransCanada’s Keystone XL plan and efforts by American Indians to stop the Dakota Access Pipeline from crossing beneath the Missouri River near the Standing Rock Sioux Reservation…
*see Neutral Perspective: Dakota Access pipeline project’s Pros & Cons

-Canada

From Standing Rock to Trans Mountain, dissent is in the pipeline Shawn McCarthy AND Justine Hunter OTTAWA AND VICTORIA The Globe and Mail (includes correction) Last updated: Thursday, Dec. 15, 2016 4:52PM EST theglobeandmail.com
The fragile victory by protesters at Standing Rock has galvanized indigenous communities north of the border, with some leaders now pledging to block the bitterly contested Trans Mountain pipeline. With his recent approval of that project, write Shawn McCarthy and Justine Hunter, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s biggest challenge may be yet to come
“.. “We are a part of that movement that happened at Standing Rock – a lot of us have been awakened,” said Andre Bear, a Cree from Saskatchewan who is co-chair of the Assembly of First Nations’ youth council. “You see the revitalization that is really bursting out after years of oppression.”

Mr. Bear, a student at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon, visited Standing Rock in August and was impressed by the alliance of indigenous and non-indigenous people. ..”

Model Path of Peace & Love for Reconciliation

Deep Thought: Different Faiths With One Spirit goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

*Note: Some others my think otherwise due to the violence in both sides (e.g. law enforcement and “protestors”), but from my personal experience during the first weekend. It was prayfully and peaceful.

Above are just “some” of the “good” that came out of this social movement (see Neutral Perspective: Dakota Access Pipeline Projects Pros & Cons ), which I pray and hope to continue in 2017. Any others that you would like to add?

Good News Sociology
https://www.facebook.com/groups/139706352858524/

Now you know: Who are “mercenaries”?

-History

How Mercenaries Work science.howstuffworks.com
“..The reasons for using mercenaries have changed over the years. In ancient times, mercenaries were a necessity. Standing armies weren’t available, so rulers had to look elsewhere for soldiers after they exhausted their supply of able-bodied citizens available to fight.

For example, the Hundred Years’ War, which lasted from 1337 to 1453, took its toll on the English and French armies. As the prolonged war grew in dimension, so did the number of mercenaries. Edward of Woodstock, also known as the Black Prince, made good use of mercenaries to carry out a method of warfare known as chevauchée. In chevauchée, small groups of mounted soldiers stormed through a territory, burning and pillaging everything in their path. Chevauchée was very effective, and it made being a mercenary a lucrative profession. Soldiers from all over Europe flocked to France to get their share of the loot, which included both salary and whatever they could plunder.

­As a result of the co­nflict in Africa and the unsavory mercenary activity it inspired, the international community strongly discouraged the use of mercenaries. Countries continued to hire foreign soldiers, but they exerted much more control. They also limited the activities of these soldiers to supporting roles only, freeing the regular army to focus on dangerous or mission-critical activities. Today, several companies exist to provide this new breed of mercenary. They are known as private military companies, or PMCs. On the next page, we’ll examine PMCs more closely. ..”

10 Things You Don’t Know About Mercenaries Posted By: Under the Radar May 12, 2016 By Sean McFate, co-author of Shadow War: A Tom Locke Novel undertheradar.military.com/
…3. Contracting may be the new American Way of War
“Why did the US, with the world’s most powerful military, need contractors? Because the All Volunteer Force could not recruit enough American’s to sustain two “long wars.” In 2002, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said the Iraq War would last: “Five days or five weeks or five months, but it certainly isn’t going to last any longer than that.” When it didn’t, policy makers faced ugly choices. They could withdraw and cede the fight to al Qaeda. They could have a Vietnam-like draft to fill the ranks. Or they could contract out the difference. They went with contractors. In Iraq, 50% of the US force was contracted. In Afghanistan it was 70%. In WW2, it was only 10%. Is contracting America’s new way of war? It’s a fair question.
4. Most contractors who fight for America aren’t even American
When I was in the industry, I worked alongside people from all over the world: Mexico, Ghana, Australia, Canada and so forth. Private military companies are just like any other multinational corporation: they recruit globally. They also pay people different wages. For example, a specialforces soldier from Honduras with similar training and background as me would get paid much less. Just like shirt sweat shops around the world, the private military industry looks for cheap labor….

Taking the fight to ISIS: American mercenaries training to fight terrorists abroad


Published on May 28, 2015

“American mercenary groups have been training and preparing to join the fight against the Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS/ISIL) abroad, looking to push back the extremists where they say that the US government has failed. Maria Finoshina reports from Homestead, Florida on a group of private mercenary fighters who are organizing to support people facing the threat of ISIS in the Philippines, and explores their motivations in depth.

Putin “I Know How Much the US Pays ISIS Mercenaries”


Published on Oct 20, 2015

Who Controls America? (with photographs)
http://thezog.info/list-summaries/”

Domestic

-Standing Rock Sioux Tribal Reservation

Dakota Access Mercenaries Sick K9s and Pepper Spray Peaceful Native Protesters
America 2.0


America 2.0
“Published on Sep 3, 2016

These peaceful Native American protesters are being treated as near enemy combatants when Dakota Access private security sick guard dogs on protesters full of men, women and children and pepper spray the crowd before shutting down for the day. No doubt sooner or later Dakota Access will escolate to the use of firearms. THEN the feds get to come in and kill the natives after the guards are dealt with in one form or another.

But remember the US federal government has very little jurisdiction on this land. They have no real environmental jurisdiction and its almost like being on foreign soil. “
L.A. protest calls out security firm for involvement in attack on DAPL protesters
September 8, 2016| 5:51 PM CST| | By Chauncey K. Robinson peoplesworld.org
“..The American Indian Movement of Southern California, Idle No More Los Angeles, and 350.org issued a joint public statement to the operators of G4S, declaring; “Your actions on September 3, 2016 at the Dakota Access Pipeline protests near Standing Rock Sioux reservation were witnessed across this country and around the world. Your use of attack dogs to intimidate and injure the protestors, including women and children, was reminiscent of the brutal tactics that have been historically used against both Native Americans and other people of color for centuries. Your company continues to perpetuate this historical discrimination and violence against our people and our allies.” The statement went further to say that the security company could “no longer hide its involvement with the Dakota Access Pipeline project.” and that the organizations would continue to “expose and resist any and all attempts to intimidate and harm our people.”..”
Hillary Clinton’s Corporate Mercenaries ATTACKS Native Americans with K9 Dogs & Pepper Spray


“..ENTER the American Demilitarized Zone : On September 3, the Dakota Access pipeline company attacked Native Americans ( Which Hillary Clinton Created * Please Share ) with attack dogs and pepper spray as they protested against the $3.8 billion pipeline’s construction. If completed, the pipeline would carry about 500,000 barrels of crude per day from North Dakota’s Bakken oilfield to Illinois. The project has faced months of resistance from the Standing Rock Sioux tribe and members of nearly 100 more tribes from across the U.S. and Canada. ..”

GLOBAL

EXCLUSIVE: Who are actually “Assad mercenaries” killing “innocent Saudi tourists” in Aleppo, Syria?


“Published on Sep 26, 2016

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‘White Helmets’ — pawns for U.S. militarism By Sara Flounders posted on September 21, 2016 workers.org
“..NBC News praised the featured group as “Angels on the Front Line.” The Washington Post, New York Times and Wall Street Journal sang the movie’s praises and White Helmets’ “selfless, humanitarian role.”

The White Helmets defines itself as unpaid, unarmed first responders in Syria, claims 3,000 members and alleges it is a Syrian Civil Defense group. It claims to have saved 40,000, even 60,000 lives in Syria, by rescuing survivors from bombsites.

Most claims about the White Helmets are unverified self-promotion on social media. Interviews with and media coverage of the grouping show desperate appeals for an increase in U.S./NATO military action in Syria — not peace and reconciliation. New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof and other journalists have quoted its calls for a no-fly zone as a “humanitarian” option.

The much-hyped White Helmets is not a Syrian organization, nor was it created by Syrians, nor is it educational. It is a U.S.-British creation. Former British Army officer James Le Mesurier, self-described as a British “security” specialist, founded it. He previously worked for Blackwater, the mercenary organization universally condemned for its murderous brutality in Iraq….

The White Helmets has never functioned as a neutral force. While attacking the Syrian government and calling for more U.S., British and NATO bombing, the group functions exclusively in Syrian areas held by the Nusra Front, a terrorist organization linked to al-Qaida. This well-funded group operates on the ground with U.S.-, British-, Israeli- and Saudi-funded militias committed to destroying Syria’s government.

While claiming to be “unarmed,” the White Helmets appears in videos with weapons, surrounded by armed militias.”
White Helmets NGO: A “Rescue and Assist” Operation under Guise of Human Rights By Brandon Turbeville
Global Research, May 13, 2016 Activist Post 10 May 2016 globalresearch.ca
“..Raed Saleh, head of White Helmets (aka Syrian Civil Defense) has publicly called for the implementation of a “No-Fly Zone” over Syria by the United Nations Security Council, an act that is tantamount to direct military warfare, an example of which can be seen in the rubble of Libya. Indeed, such a decision would simply be a repeat of the Libyan tragedy..”
The U.S./UK Financed “White Helmets” Shtick – Fake “Child Rescued” Videos June 01, 2016 moonofalabama.org
“..The group was created with the help of Purpose Inc, a U.S. company specialized in regime change NGO operations. Purpose Inc is also behind Avaaz which early on peddled fake war on Syria video propaganda. The White Helmets are financed, like all “Free Syrian Army” media propaganda, by USAID with some $23 million and by the UK Foreign Office with a total of some £23 million. The Netherlands and Japan also donated money to the scheme. The group was build up and trained since mid 2013 by a “former” UK military intelligence operator residing in Abu Dhabi. These are propaganda artists camouflaged as humanitarians.

The “White Helmets” cooperate closely with al-Qaeda. One of its leaders was recently denied an entry visa to the United States. More details about the group researched by Vanessa Beeley can be found here and here…”
Graphic Warning: The Syria White Helmets Exposed as US UK Agents Embedded with Al Nusra and ISIS liveleak.com
“..White Helmets: Follow the Money

The White Helmets were established in March 2013, in Istanbul, Turkey, and is headed by James Le Mesurier, a British “security” specialist and ‘ex’ British military intelligence officer with an impressive track record in some of the most dubious NATO intervention theatres including Bosnia and Kosovo, as well as Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine. Le Mesurier is a product of Britain’s elite Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, and has also been placed in a series of high-profile pasts at the United Nations, European Union, and U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

The origins of The White Helmet’s initial $300k seed funding is a little hazy, reports are contradictory but subs..”

North Dakota: Why Were U.S. Veterans at Standing Rock?

At Least 2,000 Veterans Arrive at Standing Rock to Protest Dakota Pipeline By Michael Edison Hayden Catherine Thorbecke EVAN SIMON
Dec 4, 2016, 2:29 PM ET abcnews.go.com
“.. Chicago native David Hulse, 34, a Navy veteran who served in Iraq told ABC News that he decided at the last minute to join the protests, describing his involvement as “not a mission of war, but a mission of peace.”

“Seeing so many veterans show up,” Hulse said. “Out here, it’s brotherhood.” ..

Among the veterans are some high-profile names, including U.S. Congresswoman Tulsi Gabbard, Democrat of Hawaii, who gained prominence when she left the Democratic National Committee to campaign for Sen. Bernie Sanders during his bid for the Democratic presidential nomination this year. Gabbard has frequently voiced support for the Dakota Access protest movement over social media. ..”

The band of US veterans who stood with protesters at Standing Rock have announced their next stop Written by Lila MacLellan December 07, 2016 qz.com
“…To the nation’s surprise, a day after 2,000 veterans and first responders appeared out of nowhere to support the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe’s protest of the Dakota Access Pipeline, the US Army Corps of Engineers effectively shut down the project. Now that same veterans group has announced plans to take their army for social justice on the road, giving hope to environmentalists and peace activists everywhere.

The presence of the veterans heightened the dramatic tension in what was largely seen as a noble battle between a small group of Native Americans and environmentalists against heavily armed police. During the course of the protests there were several high-profile clashes, including some in which police used rubber bullets and tear gas on activists. One night the police turned a water cannon on men and women despite sub-freezing temperatures. Opponents of the oil pipeline had spent months working to derail its construction because its planned route would cross within a half-mile of the Standing Rock Sioux reservation border. A breach would have put the local water supply at risk….

Now the leaders of the veterans group have announced plans to take their “peaceful, unarmed militia” to Flint, Michigan, where their presence will bring reporters and cameras, once again in service of a struggle for clean water.

Last year, regulators found that Flint’s water supply contained illegally high levels of lead. The problem had been essentially ignored for more than a year after residents first complained of rashes, headaches and a foul odor from the brown or yellowish water that ran from their taps. As an investigation into the crisis surfaced stunning cases of overlooked illnesses and warnings, Flint—where 40% of the 100,000 residents live in poverty, and the majority of residents are black—came to represent the fallout from America’s tolerance of extreme inequality. Public attention has since faded, however, even though the crisis has not been fully resolved…”

-Vets Views on Situation

FOR:

Veterans Head To Standing Rock To Support ‘We The People’


“..Published on Nov 11, 2016

Reporting from Standing Rock in North Dakota

Visit http://therealnews.com for more videos.

Lauretta Prevost with Mirrors and Hammers Productions,www.mirrorsandhammers.com..”

NODAPL: Veterans are coming to support the Standing Rock tribe , from youtube.com

Protesters at Standing Rock celebrate an unexpected victory
This story is a part of Across Women’s Lives PRI’s The World pri.org December 05, 2016 · 2:30 PM EST By Jasmine Garsd
“..The very first man I met upon arriving at the camp was a Navajo vet, named John Shirley. “I’m here to be, basically, a human shield,” he explained.

Shirley is a veteran of the first Iraq War. He came from Arizona to guard the protesters. I met him at the entrance to the sprawling camp, where, in recent weeks, protesters have clashed with National Guard soldiers and local police. And that’s when veterans like Shirley decided to come help people. To be that human shield.

To “stand there, close my eyes, and take whatever comes at me. As long as I can block and deflect whatever it may be … you know, that’s the way we was trained,” he says.

Like many veterans, he felt outraged at the way protesters were being treated by police. And he was also frustrated that Native lands and resources could be endangered by the pipeline. “I never thought I would be doing this on American soil,” he says. “Protecting the American people from their own government. I never thought that would happen, you know?”

Several thousand veterans felt the same way, pouring into the camp over the weekend. At a meeting Saturday night, in a warehouse outside Standing Rock, veterans were instructed to be nonviolent. Sage burned while men and women in uniform received marching orders: “We will not instigate.” They were told to spread the orders among themselves. No direct confrontation, and nothing that could harm the cause.

At that warehouse, there was a sense the pipeline was inevitable. By the next afternoon, they found out that wasn’t the case.

At the camp, Brandi King, a Nakota veteran of Iraq, said nonviolence is a challenging order for a warrior. “Fighting for peace is a lot harder than — I mean anyone can pull a trigger. … Actually being peaceful, and fighting for that — that takes a warrior. It takes a strong person to be peaceful.”….

King said after 10 years of not knowing what to do with herself, she finally began to heal at Standing Rock. “This — seeing people together, seeing people support each other, that provides healing for me. Seeing my indigenous brothers and sisters being able to stand up with pride, provides a healing for me.”
..”

One Veteran On Why He Will Stand For Standing Rock 05:36
Play
November 30, 2016 wbur.org
“…Thousands have registered to go. Here & Now’s Robin Young speaks with one of those vets, Dakota Blue Serna (@dakotabusmc), a former Marine.
Interview Highlights

On his motivation to go to Standing Rock

“I think a lot of veterans share my feelings that with these last couple of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan that we got cheated. We were lied to from our government, and we went and we fought a war based on a lie. So a lot of our guys are feeling that our service really was for nothing, and so now we’re going out there because this is what we signed up for, this is where our passion is, this is what we signed up to defend, are the people here in our country against all enemies, foreign and domestic. And right now, I love my government, I love my country, but the government is kind of cracking down on peaceful protesters, and it broke my heart to watch these people being sprayed with water in 25-degree temperatures. That’s inhumane, that’s unethical and that’s un-American.”

On where he stands on the issue

“I’ve got friends on both sides. I understand both sides of the story here and that’s a little bit unfortunate — you catch flak from both ends. … I will say that the general consensus of those guys, they do agree with me when I say we need to find alternative sources of energy and we have the means and the technology to do so. And we need to move away from sucking the earth’s life blood out of the ground and polluting our air. And it’s possible, and I don’t understand why people are — you know, the people with the money who make those decisions — are pushing away from that.”..”

*see Deep Thought: Is “Oil” causing wars? , goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

Veteran at Standing Rock:”I killed people…we were killing people for the wrong fucking reasons.” , from youtube.com
“Published on Dec 13, 2016

Wait for it…
Veteran at Standing Rock has frank conversation with other veterans who were marching in blizzard conditions DEC,5,2016. The man speaking was one of the thousands of U.S. military veterans that converged from around the country to Standing Rock North Dakota in a show of solidarity to pipeline protesters or “water protectors” as they prefer to be called.

This is RAW unedited video. There is some audio interference but I was filming in a blizzard, so it was unavoidable. Please like, share and feel free to use in your own projects. Love and respect to everyone out there.”
*see Neutral Perspective: Iraq War was justified or not? from goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

Veteran Finds Forgiveness, Peace in Standing Rock Fight Dec 9 2016, 10:41 pm ET by Daniel A. Medina and Rebecca Davis nbcnews.com
“…As a Native American U.S. Army veteran, Monroe, 35, has for years struggled with regret. He struggled with fighting in the Iraq War for a nation that had displaced millions of his people. When he was deployed in Iraq, he says, he noticed the parallels between Iraqis and Native Americans. ..

“I’m able to forgive myself now for some of the stuff that went on in Iraq,” Monroe said. “Feels good now that I’m forgiven and when I go to the other side and I cross the other side that I can be proud of this life I lived.” ..

As a member of the Nakoda tribe, Monroe’s roots trace back to Cannon Ball. As his ancestors fought foreign invaders to save their land from dispossession, Monroe says he and his peers fight with peaceful protest.

“We’re fighting a spiritual battle,” Monroe said. “And that’s why we’re winning.”

-Others Views

Veterans Going to Standing Rock, you have been completely scammed and Duped by Wes Clark Jr. , form youtube.com
Pam Hemphill
“Published on Nov 28, 2016

Whatever you decide, I do want to thank you for your service, and I appreciate the sentiment of why you may have been fooled here. It says that you have character and you would sacrifice to help the needy. Unfortunately that is not the cause here anymore.”

AGAINST:

Veteran’s Perception about Standing Rock Camp


“Published on Dec 1, 2016

Michael Sean encouraging veterans not to travel up to Standing Rock.”
*Statement about ..
Sewer Runoff from Standing Rock Casino Potentially Impacting Lake Oahe Drinking Water Posted on September 23, 2016 standingrockfactchecker.org
“..The map below shows the Prairie Knight Casino & Resort and the tributary system that eventually flows into Lake Oahe. It’s fair to speculate that the casino could currently be discharging their waste into the same water source the Dakota Access Pipeline is being criticized for crossing…”
Did the Dakota Access Pipeline Company Deliberately Destroy Sacred Sioux Burial Sites?
Tuesday, 06 September 2016 00:00 By Amy Goodman, Democracy Now! | Video Interview truth-out.org
Complaints grow over whites turning Dakota Access protest into hippie festival By Valerie Richardson – The Washington Times – Monday, November 28, 2016 washingtontimes.com
Tension brews as outsiders trash camps, mooch off tribe
“…“They are coming in, taking food, clothing etc and occupying space without any desire to participate in camp maintenance and without respect of tribal protocols,” she wrote. “These people are treating it like it is Burning Man or The Rainbow Gathering and I even witnessed several wandering in and out of camps comparing it to those festivals.”

Her Nov. 14 post, now making the rounds on social media, said outsiders are “literally subsisting entirely off the generosity of native people (AND YOUR DONATIONS if you have been donating) who are fighting to protect their water just because they can.”

A local deputy who asked to remain anonymous told WDAY AM’s Rob Port that most of the protesters are white, and that some have used racial slurs against black, Hispanic and American Indian officers.

Standing Rock Sioux Chairman David Archambault II, who is leading the protest, raised concerns about sanitation in a ..”

-Forgiveness

Wesley Clark Jr asks for forgiveness from Leonard Crow Dog


“Published on Dec 5, 2016

Veterans for Standing Rock, December 5, 2016
Standing Rock, ND”

Veterans Ask Native Americans For Forgiveness At Standing Rock


“Published on Dec 5, 2016

TYT Politics Reporter Jordan Chariton spoke with veterans and tribal leaders on December 5th, 2016 following a powerful ceremony where veterans asked Native Americans for forgiveness for the original sins of America perpetrated against Native Americans.”

r

North Dakota: Oil Impact on Communities Archives

Bakken Oil Fields

Bakken Formation: News, Map, Videos and Information Sources geology.com
“..The Bakken Formation is one of the largest contiguous deposits of oil and natural gas in the United States. It is an interbedded sequence of black shale, siltstone and sandstone that underlies large areas of northwestern North Dakota, northeastern Montana, southern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba. ..”
A Brief History of North Dakota Oil Production northdakotaoil.wordpress.com

In North Dakota’s Bakken oil boom, there will be blood By Jennifer Gollan / June 13, 2015 revealnews.org
“…Brendan Wegner, 21, had been scrambling down a derrick ladder when the well exploded, consuming him in a fiery tornado of oil and petroleum vapors. Rescuers found his body pinned under a heap of twisted steel pipes melted by the inferno. His charred hands were recovered later, still gripping the derrick ladder. It was his first day on the rig.

Hardy died the next day of his burns. Twinn had his lower legs amputated. Dogged by post-traumatic stress disorder, he killed himself in October 2013. Each left behind three children. Hysjulien suffered debilitating third-degree burns over half of his body. He is the lone survivor.

To this day, the explosion – pieced together from interviews, court documents and federal and local reports – remains the worst accident in the expansive Bakken oil fields since the boom began in 2006…”

Saltwater Spill in Bear Den Bay
July 11, 2014
By Ali Guio mss-lawfirm.com
“..Over the Fourth of July weekend, a pipe carrying saltwater (also called “brine”) separated near North Dakota’s badlands and spilled an estimated one million gallons of the oil and gas production byproduct. Brine is ten to thirty times saltier than seawater. The saltwater spill extended nearly two miles down a steep ravine and left a swath of dead vegetation in its path. The polluted ravine flows into Bear Den Bay, which is a tributary to man-made Lake Sakakawea. Lake Sakakawea provides drinking water to the nearby Fort Berthold Indian Reservation. The natural resources administrator for the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara tribes expressed concern that because the spill occurred at the top of a craggy bluff, the terrain would hinder efforts preserve the Reservation’s drinking water supply. An investigation Thursday by the Environmental Protection Agency revealed that the saltwater reached Bear Den Bay, but that most of the spill was pooled into the ground or held behind beaver dams. The pipeline in question was not equipped with a monitor that would have alerted the company to the spill before this large amount of brine had escaped. The spill was discovered when the company noticed a discrepancy in production loss reports and investigated. ..”

Did the N Dakota Pipeline Poisoned Drinking Water?


“..Published on Jan 27, 2015

Tyson Slocum, Public Citizen’s Energy Program, joins Thom. Residents of North Dakota are dealing with a toxic spill of brine – an oil and gas production byproduct – while more news is coming out about a massive oil spill in the Yellowstone River. How much damage are these spills doing to our environment – and why aren’t we moving beyond fossil fuels?
..”

Persistent Water and Soil Contamination Found at N.D. Wastewater Spills
By Zahra Hirji
May 5, 2016 dailyyonder.com
“..The results “indicate that the water contamination from brine spills is remarkably persistent in the environment,” Duke scientists wrote in their study published last week in the journal Environmental Science & Technology. The contamination included high levels of selenium, known to be toxic to fish and wildlife, and radioactive radium…

More than 4,000 spills have occurred in North Dakota since 2001, state records show. While many of these spills involve small amounts of wastewater, an investigation by Inside Energy last year showed these spills are increasing in size and frequency. In a move to curb these spills, state regulators are drafting new stricter construction and monitoring requirements for wastewater pipelines…

Two of the largest spills were the subject of the recent study. The biggest was discovered in January 2015 when a pipeline sprung a leak in the northwestern corner of the state near the town of Williston. Approximately 3 million gallons of wastewater was released, contaminating at least two waterways, including Blacktail Creek. (This same pipeline leaked againearlier this year close to the previous spill site.) In July 2014, about a million gallons of wastewater spilled out of a different pipeline in western North Dakota. Called the Bear Den Bay spill, it occurred in the Fort Berthold Reservation and impacted a tributary of Lake Sakakawea..”

Some water samples had metal concentrations exceeding federal environmental and drinking water regulations. Selenium levels at most spill sites were 35 times higher than those recommended for freshwater aquatic life. And the radium levels observed were 10 to 100 times higher than the levels found at non-spill sites, with the potential to linger in the soil for centuries…”
*see Environment: Clean Water Rights? goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

Health Issues

(Health: Effects from Water Contaminated by Oil Spills goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com)

Potential Health and Environmental Effects of Hydrofracking in the Williston Basin, Montana -Author: Joe HoffmanHow to Teach Controversial Topics » serc.carleton.edu
“…Health Effects of Fracking:

A 2011 article in the journal, Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, examined the potential health impacts of oil and gas drilling in relation to the chemicals used during drilling, fracking, processing,and delivery of natural gas. The paper compiled a list of 632 chemicals (an incomplete list due to trade secrecy exemptions) identified from drilling operations throughout the U.S. Their research found that 75% of the chemicals could affect the skin, eyes,and other sensory organs, and the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Approximately 40–50% could affect the brain/nervous system, immune and cardiovascular systems, and the kidneys; 37% could affect the endocrine system; and 25% could cause cancer and mutations.

Health impacts from fracking are only now being examined by health experts, since such large-scale drilling is a recent phenomenon. Exposure to toxic chemicals even at low levels can cause tremendous harm to humans; the endocrine system is sensitive to chemical exposures measuring in parts-per-billions, or less. Nevertheless, many of the health risks from the toxins used during the fracking process do not express themselves immediately, and require studies looking into long-term health effects.

Despite the complexities of the on-site mixtures of chemicals and their specific contributions to health and environmental problems involved in fracking–conventional drilling practices are more old school and do have known health consequences. Researchers at the Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, analyzed existing research of exposure to conventional petroleum hydrocarbons in occupational settings, and residences near refineries, in conjunction with known pollutants associated with fracking (nonconventional), in order to assess health risks to those residents living near fracking operations. Their basic conclusions were: the closer you live to drilling operations, the greater your health risk. Sounds obvious, but if you were to sue an oil company for the suspected killing a loved one via cancer, you would need a little more legal ammunition than “it just makes common sense” against an army of corporate lawyers.
..”

In North Dakota and Nationwide, A Boom in Health Problems Accompanies Fracking By Nicholas Kusnetz May 21, 2012 archive.onearth.org
“..Although a handful of North Dakota residents have complained about odors or health effects from drilling near their homes, the Schilkes are the first in the region to report such widespread and sustained health problems. But while their symptoms may be new to North Dakota, they mirror those reported in recent years in gas fields from the Rockies to the Appalachians. Residents of several states have experienced a suite of symptoms — including rashes, congestion, dizziness, nausea, and even cancer — that they say began when drilling and fracking came to their neighborhoods…”

North Dakota Spill Leaks 120,000 Gallons of Oil & Wastewater By James Burgess – May 23, 2016, 11:08 AM CDT oilprice.com
“…Health investigators continue to monitor the spill, which Denbury believes was ultimately caused by a power outage that led to sensor failure.

Huge vacuums were being used to suck up the spilled waste from the pastureland and then crews were forced to dig around 18 inches into the ground to remove the contaminated layer of pastureland
..”

Oil Pipeline Shut Down After Spill, Just 200 Miles From Standing Rock Energy| Dec. 06, 2016 06:05PM EST Dan Zukowski ecowatch.com
“..A six-inch crude oil pipeline operated by Belle Fourche Pipeline Company in western North Dakota was shut down following discovery of a leak on Monday. The amount of the spill was not immediately known, but oil has leaked into the Ash Coulee Creek in Billings County.

The site of the spill is about 200 miles from the camp where members of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and their supporters have been protesting the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline.
..”

-Others
*see Now you Know: History of Oil Spills goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

North Dakota oil spill 3 times larger than first estimated
BLAKE NICHOLSON,Associated Press 5 hours ago (Friday, March 24th 2017) yahoo.com
“BISMARCK, N.D. (AP) — A December oil pipeline spill in western North Dakota might have been three times larger than first estimated and among the biggest in state history, a state environmental expert said Friday.

About 530,000 gallons of oil is now believed to have spilled from the Belle Fourche Pipeline that was likely ruptured by a slumping hillside about 16 miles northwest of Belfield in Billings County, Health Department environmental scientist Bill Seuss said. The earlier estimate was about 176,000 gallons.

No decision has been made on any fines against Wyoming-based True Cos., which operates the pipeline. The company says it is committed to cleaning up the spill and that the job is about 80 percent done.

“There’s no timeline for completion, spokeswoman Wendy Owen said. “We will be there until it is” done.

A company’s efforts to clean up after an oil spill are a large factor in how much of a fine is levied, according to Seuss.

“We tend to hold off on those. It’s kind of a motivator,” he said.

The largest oil pipeline spill in North Dakota was 840,000 gallons, in a wheat field near Tioga in September 2013.

In the December spill, an unknown amount of oil flowed into Ash Coulee Creek, which feeds into the Little Missouri River, a tributary of the Missouri River. Seuss said no oil made it into those rivers or into any drinking water source, but that the focus is on cleaning up the creek before spring grazing season, since cattle drink from the waterway.

There have been no confirmed cases of livestock or wildlife deaths related to the spill. One rancher reported some cattle deaths but refused to allow the state veterinarian to do a necropsy, according to Seuss. Cleanup crews also found a dead beaver, but it’s not known what caused the death.

The pipeline had been leaking since being restarted Dec. 1 following routine maintenance, Seuss said. A landowner discovered the spill on Dec. 5.

There is still oil seeping out of the hillside but it’s being contained. Soil remediation work could take “a year or more,” Seuss said.”

In North Dakota and Nationwide, A Boom in Health Problems Accompanies Fracking By Nicholas Kusnetz

May 21, 2012 archive.onearth.org
“..Schilke lost 25 pounds in the summer of 2009 and started having trouble breathing. She had constant diarrhea and would get lightheaded. Her husband Steve’s asthma worsened, frequently leaving him tired and short of breath. The couple began getting unusual muscle aches. The following winter, Jacki got another rash, a quarter-sized spot on her leg that wouldn’t go away. She visited a neurologist who couldn’t explain what was happening. She noticed an ammonia-like smell in the house and started looking for a source, thinking that might be what was making them sick. “Hell, I hauled shit out of here by truckloads,” Jacki says. “I threw everything away. There wasn’t even a bottle of cleaner left in this house.”..”
News Releases – North Dakota Department of Health health.nd.gov

..
Truck Accident Causes Produced Water Spill in Dunn County (12/5/2016)
The North Dakota Department of Health (NDDoH) has been notified of a produced water spill resulting from a truck accident in Dunn County. Produced water is a by-product of oil and gas development. The spill occurred Friday, Dec. 2, approximately 6 miles north of Killdeer and was reported by Creek Energy Services on Saturday, Dec. 3.

Oil Spill in Billings County (12/5/2016)
The North Dakota Department of Health (NDDoH) was notified today of an oil spill resulting from a pipeline leak. The location is in Billings County approximately 16 miles northwest of Belfield. The 6-inch in diameter pipeline is operated by Belle Fourche Pipeline.

Source Water Spill Reported in Bowman County (12/2/2016)
The North Dakota Department of Health (NDDoH) has been notified that a 2,000-barrel source water spill occurred approximately 12 miles southwest of Rhame in Bowman County. Source water is used for enhanced oil recovery and is higher in dissolved solids and minerals than fresh water, but does not carry the same environmental implications as produced water. The well is owned by Denbury Onshore.
..”

Environmental Incident Reports ndhealth.gov
Spill Tracker, May 20, 2015 The Editors nrdc.org
An explosion in North American fossil fuel extraction has led to a dangerous rise in pipeline spills and oil train derailments.
Company: Equipment didn’t detect North Dakota oil leak Associated Press Associated Press By JAMES MacPHERSON, Associated Press msn.com 2 hrs ago (Monday, December 12th 2016)
“..BISMARCK, N.D. (AP) — Electronic monitoring equipment failed to detect a pipeline rupture that spewed more than 176,000 gallons of crude oil into a North Dakota creek, the pipeline’s operator said Monday.

It’s not yet clear why the monitoring equipment didn’t detect the leak, Wendy Owen, a spokeswoman for Casper, Wyoming-based True Cos., which operates the Belle Fourche Pipeline, said.

A landowner discovered the spill near Belfield on Dec. 5, according to Bill Suess, an environmental scientist with the North Dakota Health Department.

Suess said the spill migrated about almost 6 miles from the spill site along Ash Coulee Creek, and it fouled an unknown amount of private and U.S. Forest Service land along the waterway. The creek feeds into the Little Missouri River, but Seuss said it appears no oil got that far and that no drinking water sources were threatened. The creek was free-flowing when the spill occurred but has since frozen over…”

Legislation

Tesoro Pipeline Spill: Leak Detection and Public Notification — Two System Failures?


Lawmakers Move to Regulate Pipelines, After a Record Spill in a Drilling Boom
By Zahra Hirji, InsideClimate News Mar 11, 2015
North Dakota has 20,000 miles of largely unregulated ‘gathering lines,’ and that number is expected to increase by around 60% over the next five years.
“..In North Dakota, the number of drilling-related spills occurring annually has steadily increased in recent years, according to an analysis by Inside Energy, a news site. In 2010, there were about 1,000 spills reported. In 2013, there were around twice as many reported.

Since the start of the year, there have been six large spills in North Dakota: five dumped at least 450 gallons of fracking byproduct, and one spilled nearly 500 gallons of oil, according to the state’s online spill databases.

Among those accidents was the largest wastewater spill in North Dakota since the fracking boom kicked off in the early 2000s. On Jan. 6, the spill near Williston was discovered by an employee of the pipeline’s operator, Meadowlark Midstream Company, LLC. Some 2.2 million gallons gushed through a hole 2 inches in diameter­­­––the width of two quarters side-by-side.

Water sampling shows the spill affected at least two local waterways in the Missouri River watershed—Blacktail Creek and Little Muddy River—as well as groundwater around the rupture site. Officials say the spill doesn’t pose a health threat—and that no water wells have been impacted. The pipeline in question measures 4 inches in diameter and is made of a composite material called Fiberspar.

The pipe was immediately shut off after the leak was discovered. The ruptured section of the pipe has been replaced but the line remains shut off. The cause of the spill is still being investigated. According to local news organization Inforum, the pipeline was outfitted with equipment to allow remote monitoring, but the company wasn’t using the technology. Instead, workers checked for leaks using handheld devices.

The wastewater comes from deep underground. When a well is first tapped, flowback, a mix of the slurry cocktail used to blast open the rock and minimal amounts of produced water, comes back up. Once oil and gas start to flow out, produced water continues to gush up for months.
..”

Updates:

This is Mandaree facebook.com
https://www.facebook.com/ThisisMandaree/posts/489277204553293

Oil Companies Running N. Dakota

Oil companies dumping radioactive waste in ND The Rachel Maddow Show 3/12/14 msnbc.com
Oil Companies Dumping Radioactive Waste in North Dakota – The Rachel Maddow Show


Over Residents’ Objections, North Dakota Lets Oil Companies Dump Radioactive Waste August 10, 2016 governing.com
“..Despite some very emotional testimony, calls of “Why aren’t you listening to us?” along with scientific input, the council voted unanimously on Tuesday to ratify the new rules allowing up to 50 picocuries of radioactive waste from oil and gas production in specially permitted landfills.

After the vote, the council’s attorney said it will ask a district court judge for a summary judgment to end the lawsuit filed by the Dakota Resource Council and the North Dakota Energy Industry Waste Coalition. The suit challenges any actions stemming from the original, illegal meeting.

Assistant attorney Jeff Erickson said the request for a summary judgment would be based on the fact that, by replaying and ratifying the entire agenda from last August, “everything that would have happened has happened.”

The groups’ attorney, Sarah Vogel, said she intends to continue the suit. The Health Council scheduled Tuesday’s do-over after the district court threw out its earlier request to have the case dismissed.
..”

North Dakota: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)


“Published on Oct 11, 2015

North Dakota is known for being polite, but perhaps they’ve been a little too hospitable to oil companies.

Connect with Last Week Tonight online…
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Massive 2013 oil spill in North Dakota still not cleaned up by James MacPherson | AP

December 18 at 11:16 AM
“..North Dakota regulators initially thought just 750 barrels of oil was involved in the spill, but later updated the amount exponentially. They also expanded the affected acreage from about 7 — the size of seven football fields — to about 13 acres, Suess said. The cleanup has cost Tesoro more than $49 million to date and is expected to top $60 million, according to recent filings to the state…”

Oil Well View from Amtrak Empire: Montana-North Dakota Train Ride

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Deep Thought: Broken Promises-Who to trust?

Ever been on the other side of a “broken” promise? What was it for? How did it make you feel? Now, let’s flip the coin, have you ever broken a promise to someone?

We are all humans, which we all make mistakes. However, how much is “enough”?

-Family

7 Things That Happen When You Break Promises to Your Children imom.com
“..If our kids’ fleeting disappointment was the only negative outcome from our broken promises, that would be one thing. But our words have power, and when we misuse them, it’s a pretty big deal. Consider these seven things that happen when you break promises to your kids:

1. We teach them not to trust us. If your child can’t trust you in the little promises, how will they trust you in the big ones?..”

-Government

=>Native Americans

->Neutral Perspective: Dakota Access pipeline project’s Pros & Cons

Green light, red light for Dakota Access Pipeline By Ralph Ellis, Ray Sanchez and Holly Yan, CNN cnn.com
“..First, a federal judge rejected the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe’s efforts to stop construction of the crude oil pipeline that would run from North Dakota to Illinois, saying the tribe failed to show “it will suffer injury that would be prevented by any injunction the court could issue.”

But later in the day, the Army and US Justice and Interior departments jointly announced they would stop — at least temporarily — pipeline work under a lake the tribe considers a crucial water source.
They asked the pipeline company to voluntarily halt construction within 20 miles of Lake Oahe while the Army reconsiders the decision to proceed under the National Environmental Policy Act or other federal laws. ..”

Barack Broken Promise to Native Americans DAPL Pipelines New Bid Misdemeanor No Bail


“..Hundreds protest Dakota Access pipeline at White House
On the 13th of September, hundreds gathered at the White House to demand that President Obama revoke all permits for the Dakota Access Pipeline. One of the speakers reported 22 arrests on Sep 13 at Standing Rock, where Energy Transfer is attempting to continue DAPL construction in defiance of demands from the Dept of the Interior and US Army Corps of Engineers that construction be stopped…”

Standing Rock Sioux Continue Opposition To Dakota Access Pipeline 4:21 October 30, 20165:00 PM ET Heard on All Things Considered npr.org
“..MARTIN: Well, to that end, though, one consideration in this case is the history of the relationship between the Sioux Nation and the U.S. government, which many people see as a history of broken promises, early treaties that were broken to lands like the Black Hills, which were taken during the Gold Rush. And I am wondering how much of the intensity of feeling around this, which has attracted not just the Standing Rock Nation members but also, you know, tribal members from around the country, how much of it is, in part, because of that…”

With more than 500 treaties already broken, the government can do whatever it wants, it seems…
By Samuel Vargo Friday Nov 21, 2014 · 4:06 PM CDT dailykos.com
“..More than 500 treaties have been made between the government and Indian tribes and all were broken, nulllified or amended. Nothing’s changed. The mere fact that the Keystone XL oil pipeline has even been considered is a violation of law and shouldn’t have seen blueprints, let alone having this North American monster voted on by the Senate and House of Representatives…

Nothing’s changed since then, actually. The Senate vote Tuesday was solely based on GREED and self-interest by Self-Serve-a-tive politicians who have been lambasted continually as being mere pawns for Big Oil & Gas, along with the interests of the egregious Koch Brothers.
The South Dakota Black Hills contains some of the most antediluvian mountains in the world, encompassing over 5,000 acres. And the Black Hills have been held sacred by the Lakota people since antiquity. The 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty designated the sovereignty of the Lakota people and prohibited outside settlers to ever occupy their lands. All this changed, though, in 1874 when gold was found in the Black Hills and in other areas held sovereign by the Lakota and non-Indian miners swarmed the Black Hills. Consequently, the federal government reneged on the Fort Laramie Treaties and took total control of the Black Hills again, only a decade after signing the second treaty.

The 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty, by the way, clearly defined boundaries owned by the Lakota people and if the land boundaries of this treaty were actually upheld by the federal government, a very large Indian state about twice the size of Oklahoma would now be situated somewhere in the upper Midwest, probably between Minnesota and Montana. But Wasi’chu had other plans and in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln allowed for a flood of white settlers into Native lands by signing the Homestead Act. In retaliation, there was an Indian uprising in 1863 by the Santee Sioux tribe in Minnesota which resulted in the largest mass-hanging in U.S. history wherein 38 Sioux men were hanged by order of President Abraham Lincoln. Ironically, the mass-execution came only two days after Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation…”
Broken Promises: Standing Rock Sioux Tribe Cites History of Government Betrayal in Pipeline Fight By EVAN SIMON Nov 22, 2016, 4:31 AM ET abcnews.go.com
“…Things only got worse for the Sioux after gold was discovered at the headwaters of the Missouri River in 1861, prompting a flood of settlers. The tribes repeatedly objected to the intrusions and demanded government recognition of the 1851 Fort Laramie Treaty, but their complaints fell on deaf ears.

By 1868, the U.S. government and representatives of various Sioux tribes convened once again at Fort Laramie. The resulting treaty established a much smaller territory known as the Great Sioux Reservation, but under Article 12 no further land loss could occur unless approved by three-fourths of adult Sioux males.

Nevertheless, after gold was discovered in the sacred Black Hills of South Dakota deep in Sioux territory, Congress passed the Act of 1877 which ceded the Black Hills to the United States without tribal approval in one of the most controversial land grabs in U.S. history.
..”

=>Politicians

Tracking politicians’ promises politifact.com
Trust Us: Politicians Keep Most Of Their PromisesBy Timothy Hill Filed under 2016 Election Apr 21, 2016 at 6:33 AM fivethirtyeight.com

=>Presidents

10 Famous Presidential Promises Updated 3:58 PM ET, Fri February 5, 2016 cnn.com
The Top 10 Broken Promises Of The Obama Presidency Broken Promises – January 11, 2016 gop.com

Broken Campaign Promises: A History: Photos
Current Events Dec 12, 2012 03:00 AM ET seeker.com

Media
US Intelligence What Edward Snowden Leaked Was Nothing Compared to What He Didn’t
By Tom Engelhardt

February 20, 2014 .thenation.com

The revelations of whistleblowers lead us to believe that we know a great deal about the secret world of Washington. This is an illusion.

“.. One thing couldn’t be clearer, though: the mania for secrecy has grown tremendously in the Obama years. On entering the Oval Office in 2009, Obama proclaimed a sunshine administration dedicated to “openness” and “transparency.” That announcement now drips with irony. If you want a measure of the kind of secrecy the NSS considers proper and the White House condones these days, check out a recent Los Angeles Times piece on the CIA’s drone assassination program (one of the more overt aspects of Washington’s covert world). ..”

-Terrorist Negotiations

President Obama Broke Promise for Charity Donation, ISIS Hostage Family Says

By Brian Ross
James Gordon Meek
Jonathan Karl
MEGAN CHRISTIE
BRIAN EPSTEIN
Aug 26, 2016, 3:41 PM ET abcnews.go.com
“…“I’m still waiting for that donation, Mr. President,” Carl Mueller said in an ABC News interview broadcast this morning on “Good Morning America,” as part of an hour long investigation to be aired tonight on “20/20.” ..”

IN GOD WE TRUST!

21 Helpful Bible Verses About Making Promises – Bible Reasons biblereasons.com
What does the Bible say about keeping your vows / oaths? gotquestions.org

Forgiveness

Forgiveness and Restoration By Rose Sweet focusonthefamily.com
Does God Forgive Broken Promises?
I promised God I wouldn’t do it again…and then I did.

Carla Barnhill christianitytoday.com

Who can you depend or trust on?

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