Now you know: Who are “mercenaries”?

-History

How Mercenaries Work science.howstuffworks.com
“..The reasons for using mercenaries have changed over the years. In ancient times, mercenaries were a necessity. Standing armies weren’t available, so rulers had to look elsewhere for soldiers after they exhausted their supply of able-bodied citizens available to fight.

For example, the Hundred Years’ War, which lasted from 1337 to 1453, took its toll on the English and French armies. As the prolonged war grew in dimension, so did the number of mercenaries. Edward of Woodstock, also known as the Black Prince, made good use of mercenaries to carry out a method of warfare known as chevauchée. In chevauchée, small groups of mounted soldiers stormed through a territory, burning and pillaging everything in their path. Chevauchée was very effective, and it made being a mercenary a lucrative profession. Soldiers from all over Europe flocked to France to get their share of the loot, which included both salary and whatever they could plunder.

­As a result of the co­nflict in Africa and the unsavory mercenary activity it inspired, the international community strongly discouraged the use of mercenaries. Countries continued to hire foreign soldiers, but they exerted much more control. They also limited the activities of these soldiers to supporting roles only, freeing the regular army to focus on dangerous or mission-critical activities. Today, several companies exist to provide this new breed of mercenary. They are known as private military companies, or PMCs. On the next page, we’ll examine PMCs more closely. ..”

10 Things You Don’t Know About Mercenaries Posted By: Under the Radar May 12, 2016 By Sean McFate, co-author of Shadow War: A Tom Locke Novel undertheradar.military.com/
…3. Contracting may be the new American Way of War
“Why did the US, with the world’s most powerful military, need contractors? Because the All Volunteer Force could not recruit enough American’s to sustain two “long wars.” In 2002, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said the Iraq War would last: “Five days or five weeks or five months, but it certainly isn’t going to last any longer than that.” When it didn’t, policy makers faced ugly choices. They could withdraw and cede the fight to al Qaeda. They could have a Vietnam-like draft to fill the ranks. Or they could contract out the difference. They went with contractors. In Iraq, 50% of the US force was contracted. In Afghanistan it was 70%. In WW2, it was only 10%. Is contracting America’s new way of war? It’s a fair question.
4. Most contractors who fight for America aren’t even American
When I was in the industry, I worked alongside people from all over the world: Mexico, Ghana, Australia, Canada and so forth. Private military companies are just like any other multinational corporation: they recruit globally. They also pay people different wages. For example, a specialforces soldier from Honduras with similar training and background as me would get paid much less. Just like shirt sweat shops around the world, the private military industry looks for cheap labor….

Taking the fight to ISIS: American mercenaries training to fight terrorists abroad


Published on May 28, 2015

“American mercenary groups have been training and preparing to join the fight against the Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS/ISIL) abroad, looking to push back the extremists where they say that the US government has failed. Maria Finoshina reports from Homestead, Florida on a group of private mercenary fighters who are organizing to support people facing the threat of ISIS in the Philippines, and explores their motivations in depth.

Putin “I Know How Much the US Pays ISIS Mercenaries”


Published on Oct 20, 2015

Who Controls America? (with photographs)
http://thezog.info/list-summaries/”

Domestic

-Standing Rock Sioux Tribal Reservation

Dakota Access Mercenaries Sick K9s and Pepper Spray Peaceful Native Protesters
America 2.0


America 2.0
“Published on Sep 3, 2016

These peaceful Native American protesters are being treated as near enemy combatants when Dakota Access private security sick guard dogs on protesters full of men, women and children and pepper spray the crowd before shutting down for the day. No doubt sooner or later Dakota Access will escolate to the use of firearms. THEN the feds get to come in and kill the natives after the guards are dealt with in one form or another.

But remember the US federal government has very little jurisdiction on this land. They have no real environmental jurisdiction and its almost like being on foreign soil. “
L.A. protest calls out security firm for involvement in attack on DAPL protesters
September 8, 2016| 5:51 PM CST| | By Chauncey K. Robinson peoplesworld.org
“..The American Indian Movement of Southern California, Idle No More Los Angeles, and 350.org issued a joint public statement to the operators of G4S, declaring; “Your actions on September 3, 2016 at the Dakota Access Pipeline protests near Standing Rock Sioux reservation were witnessed across this country and around the world. Your use of attack dogs to intimidate and injure the protestors, including women and children, was reminiscent of the brutal tactics that have been historically used against both Native Americans and other people of color for centuries. Your company continues to perpetuate this historical discrimination and violence against our people and our allies.” The statement went further to say that the security company could “no longer hide its involvement with the Dakota Access Pipeline project.” and that the organizations would continue to “expose and resist any and all attempts to intimidate and harm our people.”..”
Hillary Clinton’s Corporate Mercenaries ATTACKS Native Americans with K9 Dogs & Pepper Spray


“..ENTER the American Demilitarized Zone : On September 3, the Dakota Access pipeline company attacked Native Americans ( Which Hillary Clinton Created * Please Share ) with attack dogs and pepper spray as they protested against the $3.8 billion pipeline’s construction. If completed, the pipeline would carry about 500,000 barrels of crude per day from North Dakota’s Bakken oilfield to Illinois. The project has faced months of resistance from the Standing Rock Sioux tribe and members of nearly 100 more tribes from across the U.S. and Canada. ..”

GLOBAL

EXCLUSIVE: Who are actually “Assad mercenaries” killing “innocent Saudi tourists” in Aleppo, Syria?


“Published on Sep 26, 2016

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‘White Helmets’ — pawns for U.S. militarism By Sara Flounders posted on September 21, 2016 workers.org
“..NBC News praised the featured group as “Angels on the Front Line.” The Washington Post, New York Times and Wall Street Journal sang the movie’s praises and White Helmets’ “selfless, humanitarian role.”

The White Helmets defines itself as unpaid, unarmed first responders in Syria, claims 3,000 members and alleges it is a Syrian Civil Defense group. It claims to have saved 40,000, even 60,000 lives in Syria, by rescuing survivors from bombsites.

Most claims about the White Helmets are unverified self-promotion on social media. Interviews with and media coverage of the grouping show desperate appeals for an increase in U.S./NATO military action in Syria — not peace and reconciliation. New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof and other journalists have quoted its calls for a no-fly zone as a “humanitarian” option.

The much-hyped White Helmets is not a Syrian organization, nor was it created by Syrians, nor is it educational. It is a U.S.-British creation. Former British Army officer James Le Mesurier, self-described as a British “security” specialist, founded it. He previously worked for Blackwater, the mercenary organization universally condemned for its murderous brutality in Iraq….

The White Helmets has never functioned as a neutral force. While attacking the Syrian government and calling for more U.S., British and NATO bombing, the group functions exclusively in Syrian areas held by the Nusra Front, a terrorist organization linked to al-Qaida. This well-funded group operates on the ground with U.S.-, British-, Israeli- and Saudi-funded militias committed to destroying Syria’s government.

While claiming to be “unarmed,” the White Helmets appears in videos with weapons, surrounded by armed militias.”
White Helmets NGO: A “Rescue and Assist” Operation under Guise of Human Rights By Brandon Turbeville
Global Research, May 13, 2016 Activist Post 10 May 2016 globalresearch.ca
“..Raed Saleh, head of White Helmets (aka Syrian Civil Defense) has publicly called for the implementation of a “No-Fly Zone” over Syria by the United Nations Security Council, an act that is tantamount to direct military warfare, an example of which can be seen in the rubble of Libya. Indeed, such a decision would simply be a repeat of the Libyan tragedy..”
The U.S./UK Financed “White Helmets” Shtick – Fake “Child Rescued” Videos June 01, 2016 moonofalabama.org
“..The group was created with the help of Purpose Inc, a U.S. company specialized in regime change NGO operations. Purpose Inc is also behind Avaaz which early on peddled fake war on Syria video propaganda. The White Helmets are financed, like all “Free Syrian Army” media propaganda, by USAID with some $23 million and by the UK Foreign Office with a total of some £23 million. The Netherlands and Japan also donated money to the scheme. The group was build up and trained since mid 2013 by a “former” UK military intelligence operator residing in Abu Dhabi. These are propaganda artists camouflaged as humanitarians.

The “White Helmets” cooperate closely with al-Qaeda. One of its leaders was recently denied an entry visa to the United States. More details about the group researched by Vanessa Beeley can be found here and here…”
Graphic Warning: The Syria White Helmets Exposed as US UK Agents Embedded with Al Nusra and ISIS liveleak.com
“..White Helmets: Follow the Money

The White Helmets were established in March 2013, in Istanbul, Turkey, and is headed by James Le Mesurier, a British “security” specialist and ‘ex’ British military intelligence officer with an impressive track record in some of the most dubious NATO intervention theatres including Bosnia and Kosovo, as well as Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine. Le Mesurier is a product of Britain’s elite Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst, and has also been placed in a series of high-profile pasts at the United Nations, European Union, and U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

The origins of The White Helmet’s initial $300k seed funding is a little hazy, reports are contradictory but subs..”

Now you Know: History of Oil Spills

Top 10 Largest Oil Spills In History


“..Published on Nov 16, 2014

Welcome to Top10Archive. From Fergana Valley, to the Amoco Cadiz Incident, in this video we will look at the top 10 largest oil spills in recorded history. In all fairness, we have omitted the Kuwait oil fires and oil lakes of 1991, as they were intentional oil spills.

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10. Amoco Cadiz Oil Tankers – 1.6 to 1.7 Million Barrels
9. The Castillo De Bellver – 1.85 Million Barrels
8. ABT Summer – 1.8 to 1.9 Million Barrels
7. Iran-Iraq War – 1.9 Million Barrels
6. Fergana Valley – 2+ Million Barrels
5. The Atlantic Empress – 2.1 to 2.4 Million Barrels
4. Ixtoc – 3+ Million Barrels
3. BP Oil Spill – 4.7 to 4.9 Million Barrels

Deepwater Horizon Documentary – The Largest Oil Spill In American History [HD]


“Published on Feb 4, 2016

Deepwater Horizon Documentary The Largest Oil Spill In American History Oil Spill Documentary The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill BP oil spill BP oil disaster Macondo blowout

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill, the BP oil disaster, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and the Macondo blowout) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010. Eleven people went missing and were never found and it is considered the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry, an estimated 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previously largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill. The US Government estimated the total discharge at 4.9 million barrels (210 million US gal; 780,000 m3). After several failed efforts to contain the flow, the well was declared sealed on 19 September 2010. Reports in early 2012 indicated the well site was still leaking.
A massive response ensued to protect beaches, wetlands and estuaries from the spreading oil utilizing skimmer ships, floating booms, controlled burns and 1.84 million US gallons (7,000 m3) of Corexit oil dispersant. Due to the months-long spill, along with adverse effects from the response and cleanup activities, extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats and fishing and tourism industries was reported. In Louisiana, 4.6 million pounds of oily material was removed from the beaches in 2013, over double the amount collected in 2012. Oil cleanup crews worked four days a week on 55 miles of Louisiana shoreline throughout 2013. Oil continued to be found as far from the Macondo site as the waters off the Florida Panhandle and Tampa Bay, where scientists said the oil and dispersant mixture is embedded in the sand. In 2013 it was reported that dolphins and other marine life continued to die in record numbers with infant dolphins dying at six times the normal rate. One study released in 2014 reported that tuna and amberjack that were exposed to oil from the spill developed deformities of the heart and other organs that would be expected to be fatal or at least life-shortening and another study found that cardiotoxicity might have been widespread in animal life exposed to the spill.
Numerous investigations explored the causes of the explosion and record-setting spill. Notably, the U.S. government’s September 2011 report pointed to defective cement on the well, faulting mostly BP, but also rig operator Transocean and contractor Halliburton. Earlier in 2011, a White House commission likewise blamed BP and its partners for a series of cost-cutting decisions and an insufficient safety system, but also concluded that the spill resulted from “systemic” root causes and “absent significant reform in both industry practices and government policies, might well recur”.
In November 2012, BP and the United States Department of Justice settled federal criminal charges with BP pleading guilty to 11 counts of manslaughter, two misdemeanors, and a felony count of lying to Congress. BP also agreed to four years of government monitoring of its safety practices and ethics, and the Environmental Protection Agency announced that BP would be temporarily banned from new contracts with the US government. BP and the Department of Justice agreed to a record-setting $4.525 billion in fines and other payments. As of February 2013, criminal and civil settlements and payments to a trust fund had cost the company $42.2 billion.
In September 2014, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that BP was primarily responsible for the oil spill because of its gross negligence and reckless conduct.
In July 2015, BP agreed to pay $18.7 billion in fines, the largest corporate settlement in U.S. history.”

2. The Gulf War Oil Spill – 8 Million Barrels
1. The Midway-Sunset Oil Field – Lakeview Gusher – 9 Million Barrels..”

Pipelines

Native American Prophecy + Enbridge Oil Spill History


“Published on May 27, 2012

A History of Enbridge Oil Pipeline Spills –
http://www.seankheraj.com/?p=1176 – FACTBOX-Enbridge has history of US pipeline spills:
“Enbridge Inc. (ENB.TO) ruptured in southern Michigan on Monday, spilling between 800,000 and 1 million gallons (19,047 to 23,809 barrels) of crude into a creek feeding the Kalamazoo River, which flows into Lake Michigan.
November, 2007: Two workers are killed after an Enbridge-operated pipeline catches fire in Northern Minnesota. The same line had recently been repaired. Following the incident, which resulted in a pipeline closure, up to 20 percent of U.S. crude imports were temporarily halted. Enbridge was fined for having allowed pressure on the pipeline to exceed recommended limits”
http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/0…

Pollution charges laid in 2007 Burnaby oil pipeline rupture
http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/ne…

Companies plead guilty in 2007 pipeline rupture
http://www.burnabynow.com/news/Compan…

Burnaby oil spill turns into crude geyser, what a scene!
http://chineseinvancouver.blogspot.ca…

Leaking pipeline reopens, but industry concerns remain
http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/09/17/enbr…

oil spill in Abbotsford: Timely reminder of pipeline expansion dangers
http://wildernesscommittee.org/press_…

Piping tar sands oil through Ontario protested
National Energy Boards hearing on Enbridge pipeline reversal shutdown
http://toronto.mediacoop.ca/story/pip…

NO TANKERS ON B.C. COAST at the Art Gallery, 26 March, 2012

First Nations Song

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill pic FROM http://gulfofmexicooilspillblog.com/

MP fears B.C. pipeline could force people from homes http://www.ctvbc.ctv.ca/servlet/an/lo…
aND ctvglobalnothings, don’t even try to hit me with an infringement copyright BS again!”

AMERICAS

NORTH

-USA

-History

30 Years of Oil and Gas Pipeline Accidents, Mapped George Joseph @georgejoseph94 Nov 30, 2016 citylab.com
The sheer number of incidents involving America’s fossil fuel infrastructure suggests environmental concerns should go beyond Standing Rock.

“…

The 1,172 mile Dakota Access Pipeline, stretching from North Dakota to Illinois, would carry 470,000 barrels of crude oil a day if completed. But its future is still uncertain. Last week, the Army Corps of Engineers announced plans to close the Standing Rock Sioux camp by Dec. 5, but later claimed it had “no plans for forcible removal” and “is seeking a peaceful and orderly transition to a safer location,” after public backlash. In recent weeks, police have used increasingly aggressive means to confront protesters, including water cannons, tear-gas grenades, and sound weapons. In response, thousands of veterans have pledged to travel to Standing Rock next week to serve as human shields for the protesters, who call themselves “water protectors.”

Regardless of what happens at Standing Rock, Zizi says he expects deadly pipeline accidents will continue to flare up nationwide. “I live in Richmond, California and experienced the 2012 Chevron refinery explosion,” says Zizi. “That was scary, living six blocks away and seeing the black smoke covering the sun. They said there’s nothing wrong with this, just stay in your house. But this is contaminating our land, our soil, our air, our water. Once things are contaminated, it is hard to go back.”..”
Federal data: As oil production soars, so do pipeline leaks By Tribune wire reportsContact Reporter May 22nd 2015 chicagotribune.com
“The oil pipeline leak that fouled a stretch of California coastline this week reflects a troubling trend in the nation’s infrastructure: As U.S. oil production has soared, so has the number of pipeline accidents.

Since 2009, the annual number of significant accidents on oil and petroleum pipelines has shot up by almost 60 percent, roughly matching the rise in U.S. crude oil production, according an analysis of federal data by The Associated Press.

Nearly two-thirds of the leaks during that time have been linked to corrosion or material, welding and equipment failures, problems often associated with older pipelines, although they also can occur in newer ones, too. Other leaks were blamed on natural disasters or human error, such as a backhoe striking a pipeline.

Industry officials and federal regulators say they have adequate means of gauging the safety of pipelines, but the aging infrastructure is a source of lingering concern for outside experts….

With new drilling techniques such as hydraulic fracturing, the U.S. is in a period of sustained growth in oil production. New frontiers, such as parts of North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas and Pennsylvania, have lifted domestic output to near historic highs.

The federal pipeline safety agency recently issued guidance — though not a rule — that lays out steps pipeline operators should take to evaluate the risks of aging pipelines.

After previous pipeline spills, federal safety regulators have considered requiring greater use of valves that can automatically seal off breached lines. Also proposed are better leak-detection systems and an expanded definition of areas that are considered “high-consequence” during a pipeline break, such as heavily populated or environmentally sensitive locations….”

=>Colorado

178 barrels of oil spill into Colorado’s only designated wild and scenic river Published time: 21 Jun, 2014 10:03 rt.com
“..A 7,500-gallon storage tank of crude oil has completely drained into the scenic Cache La Poudre, Colorado’s only designated National Wild and Scenic River, southeast of Fort Collins…”
Suncor refinery accident released 75,600 pounds of sulfur dioxide, 150 times daily limit
Suncor admits sulfur dioxide release was 150 times higher than limits but says there were no health risks By BRUCE FINLEY bfinley@denverpost.com PUBLISHED: October 28, 2016 at 3:58 pm | UPDATED: October 31, 2016 at 1:07 pm .denverpost.com
“…The Suncor oil refinery upwind of Denver that recently belched pumpkin-colored gas and dust into the sky, worrying residents and prompting highway closures, released far more sulfur dioxide than previously known — 75,600 pounds, 150 times beyond a 24-hour limit that triggers an investigation, according to a company letter obtained Friday.

Suncor spokeswoman Lisha Burnett told reporters shortly after the Oct. 14 event that no sulfur dioxide had been detected near the refinery, but company officials later acknowledged the sulfur dioxide release had exceeded the daily limit of 500 pounds. The company and state officials say the release did not pose any health risks…”
BP pipeline ruptures into CO river By Marlee Kokotovic – December 27, 2016 | News Report nationofchange.org
The county where this spill took place has experienced 19 reported spills in 2016, 12 of those incidents were BP.
“…Last week, a BP pipeline ruptured in Colorado for “unknown” reasons, spilling coal-bed methane-contaminated wastewater into the river. Upon the discovery of the spill, an earthen dam was constructed to prevent a majority of the toxic chemicals from traveling further downstream. So far, we know the contaminated water has traveled at least 2,300 feet along the tributary bed…”
BP Pipeline Ruptures in Colorado, Spills Into Sauls Creek
by Jonathan Romeo / The Durango Herald Thursday, December 22nd, 2016 earthfirstjournal.org
“..As of Dec. 19, there have been 19 reported spills in La Plata County in 2016 accounting for approximately 350 barrels of spilled substances, mostly produced water.

BP has accounted for 12 of those incidents, spilling about 165 barrels, according to COGCC data.

Two spills (including this recent one) did not have estimates for amounts leaked.

..”

=>Maryland

America’s aging pipelines
Newsroom cnn.com
“A CNN investigation into the deteriorating pipelines buried all over America. CNN’s Rene Marsh reports.Source: CNN”

=>North Dakota

Largest Leak In State History: North Dakota Pipeline Leaks Crude Oil, 3mn Gallons of Fracking Fluid


“…Published on Jan 23, 2015

http://www.undergroundworldnews.com
Dahboo7 On Zeekly: http://zeeklytv.com/user/Dahboo77

Nearly 3 million gallons of saltwater and an as yet unknown amount of crude oil have leaked from a northwest North Dakota pipeline into a creek that feeds into the Missouri River. Officials have called the leak the largest of its kind in state history.

The leak in the 4-inch saltwater collection line, owned by Summit Midstream Partners LP and operated by subsidiary Meadowlark Midstream Co., was discovered earlier this month and was reported to the state on January 7, according to Reuters.

Yet some of the brine made it to the Missouri River, the Williston Herald reported, and the state found “high readings” of contamination at the confluence of the Little Muddy and Missouri Rivers southeast of Williston, according to Karl Rockeman, the director of water quality at the Department of Health.

Williston sits in the middle of North Dakota’s oil boom, and the saltwater is said to be a byproduct of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking.

http://rt.com/usa/225671-north-dakota…..”
Weather Affects Oil Pipeline Spill Cleanup in North Dakota By james macpherson, associated press BISMARCK, N.D. — Dec 8, 2016, 5:32 PM ET abcnews.go.com
“..A company with a history of oil field-related spills in North Dakota and Montana is being hampered by winter weather in its cleanup of a “significant” pipeline break that leaked crude oil into a tributary of the Little Missouri River in western North Dakota, a regulator said Thursday.

Bill Suess, an environmental scientist with the North Dakota Health Department, said the Belle Fourche Pipeline Co. spill was discovered Monday by a landowner near Belfield. The cause of the leak is under investigation and the amount of the spill is unknown, in part because of recent blizzards and subzero temperatures throughout North Dakota, he said.

“Anytime you have cold temperatures, it’s going to hinder cleanup and the investigation,” Suess said.

He said the spill migrated about 2? miles from the spill site along Ash Coulee Creek, and it fouled an unknown amount of private and U.S. Forest Service land along the waterway. He said state and federal inspectors have been monitoring the spill and that it appeared to be contained. The creek was free-flowing when the spill occurred but has since frozen over.

The spill in the creek is about 20 miles upstream of the Little Missouri River. Suess said it did not appear that any of the oil reached the river and no drinking water sources were affected.
..”

=>South Dakota

Keystone pipeline leaks 210K gallons of oil in South Dakota Associated Press 12 hours ago (11.17.17) yahoo.com
“..AMHERST, S.D. (AP) — TransCanada Corp.’s Keystone pipeline leaked an estimated 210,000 gallons of oil onto agricultural land in northeastern South Dakota, the company and state regulators said Thursday, but state officials don’t believe the leak polluted any surface water bodies or drinking water systems.

Crews shut down the pipeline Thursday morning and activated emergency response procedures after a drop in pressure was detected resulting from the leak south of a pump station in Marshall County, TransCanada said in a statement. The cause was being investigated…

Keystone pipeline leak spills 210,000 gallons of oil in South Dakota Last Updated Nov 16, 2017 9:13 PM EST cbsnews.com
‘..AMHERST, S.D. — TransCanada Corp.’s Keystone pipeline has been shut down after it leaked an estimated 210,000 gallons of oil in northeastern South Dakota, the company and state regulators reported Thursday.

Crews shut down the pipeline Thursday morning and activated emergency response procedures after a drop in pressure was detected resulting from the leak south of a pump station in Marshall County, TransCanada said in a statement. The cause was being investigated.

Late Thursday evening, TransCanada tweeted a picture that apparently shows the “approximate release area” as seen from an aerial patrol of the company’s initial response:

Image of Amherst incident taken earlier today by aerial patrol as part of our initial response. For more updates, visit https://t.co/8yWI1Oq2EM pic.twitter.com/uRNtYUdVjL
— TransCanada (@TransCanada) November 16, 2017

Officials don’t believe the leak affected any surface water bodies or threatened any drinking water systems, said Brian Walsh, an environmental scientist manager at the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, which has dispatched a staff member to the site.

“Ultimately, the cleanup responsibility lies with TransCanada, and they’ll have to clean it up in compliance with our state regulations,” Walsh said.

The pipeline transports crude from Alberta, Canada, to refineries in Illinois and Oklahoma, passing through the eastern Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. It can handle nearly 600,000 barrels, or about 23 million gallons, daily. TransCanada says on its website that the company has safely transported more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil, or about 63 billion gallons, through the system since operations began in 2010…”

US Has Had 220 Oil Pipeline Leaks This Year, And No One Is Paying Attention


“Published on Oct 29, 2016

The amount of oil being spilled on American soil is increasing at an alarming rate, but the corporate-controlled media has said almost nothing about it, and our elected officials are doing even less about this growing problem. SUBSCRIBE to Ring Of Fire: https://www.youtube.com/user/golefttv”

Find Pipelines Near You (see map) pipelineawareness.org
“Pipelines are all around you. More than two million miles of pipelines cross the United States connecting to other pipelines, manufacturing and refining centers, distribution hubs, businesses and your home. Pipelines safely transport natural gas, crude oil, gasoline, propane, ethanol and other energy products every day…

Trains

Crude Oil Transportation: A Timeline of Failure riverkeeper.org
Crude Oil by Rail

“In 2013, far more oil was spilled from rail accidents in the U.S.—more than 1.15 million gallons—than in the previous four decades, combined. Read about it…”
Oil Train Spills Hit Record Level in 2014 by Tony Dokoupil
News Jan 26 2015, 8:49 am ET nbcnews.com
“..American oil trains spilled crude oil more often in 2014 than in any year since the federal government began collecting data on such incidents in 1975, an NBC News analysis shows.

The record number of spills sparked a fireball in Virginia, polluted groundwater in Colorado, and destroyed a building in Pennsylvania, causing at least $5 million in damages and the loss of 57,000 gallons of crude oil.

By volume, that’s dramatically less crude than trains spilled in 2013, when major derailments in Alabama and North Dakota leached a record 1.4 million gallons — more than was lost in the prior 40 years combined. But by frequency of spills, 2014 set a new high with 141 “unintentional releases,” according to data from the federal Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA). By comparison, between 1975 and 2012, U.S. railroads averaged just 25 spills a year. ..”

Why Is Transporting Oil So Dangerous?


“Published on Mar 2, 2015

Subscribe! http://bitly.com/1iLOHml

Transporting oil by rail has come under scrutiny after the recent explosions near residential communities in Virginia and Ontario. So, how dangerous are oil trains? “

-Maps

Crude-by-Rail Across America earthjustice.org
“..Oil trains are not subject to the same strict routing requirements placed on other hazardous materials; trains carrying explosive crude are permitted to pass directly through cities—with tragic results. In the absence of more protective regulations, communities across the country are beginning to take matters in their own hands…”

Misc.

Pick Your Poison For Crude — Pipeline, Rail, Truck Or Boat James Conca , Contributor Apr 26, 2014 @ 10:35 AM 124,381 views forbes.com
“..The short answer is: truck worse than train worse than pipeline worse than boat (Oilprice.com). But that’s only for human death and property destruction. For the normalized amount of oil spilled, it’s truck worse than pipeline worse than rail worse than boat (Congressional Research Service). Different yet again is for environmental impact (dominated by impact to aquatic habitat), where it’s boat worse than pipeline worse than truck worse than rail…”

Solutions?

Better Ways to Stop Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Posted on March 9, 2015 by Andrew Campbell energyathaas.wordpress.com
“.. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which sets rates for the country’s interstate natural gas pipelines, launched a new docket last November. FERC proposes to allow pipelines to recover capital expenditures made to enhance reliability, improve safety and meet environmental objectives. This would be allowed outside of the normal rate-setting process…

The rapidly falling cost of communicating sensors and cloud computing is enabling real-time measurement that was cost prohibitive in the past. This trend is called the “Internet of Things” or Industry 4.0, in the industrial context. Now it’s feasible to monitor natural gas pipelines and compressors at many locations on a real-time basis….

The Environmental Defense Fund and Google have launched an initiative that demonstrates one new approach to leak monitoring. In city after city they are conducting drive-by leak surveys using car-mounted measurement devices. Street View meets leak detection. In the sample maps below, each circle signifies a leak, with darker colors representing bigger leaks. The incidence of leaks varies significantly between and within cities….”
Oil spills Solutions, personal.psu.edu
“..According to EPA’s website the best way we can best avoid the environmental and economic effects of oil spills by preventing and containing them in the first place. For more than two decades, EPA’s Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures, or SPCC program, has worked at several hundred thousand oil storage facilities to prevent the discharge of all kinds of oil into the waters of the United States. EPA’s approach to preventing oil spills combines planning and enforcement measures. To prevent oil spills, EPA requires owners or operators of certain oil storage facilities to prepare and implement SPCC Plans that detail the facility’s spill prevention and control measures. EPA also enforces the oil spill liability and penalty provisions under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, which provide incentives to facility owners/operators to take the necessary steps to prevent oil spills. EPA also conducts on-site facility inspections to ensure that facilities take adequate measures to prevent an accidental discharge…”
How to Prevent Deepwater Spills by Peter Fairley
June 10, 2010 technologyreview.com
Safety upgrades are critical but could mean higher prices for oil and gas.
“…One inherently safer option that many petroleum engineers are considering is bringing BOPs to the surface. In this scheme the BOP on the wellhead thousands of feet below the ocean surface is backed up by a second BOP on the drill rig that would be accessible for more regular inspection and testing. Doing so would mean hardening the risers that link the wellhead and the drill rig to handle extreme pressures…”

Learned anything new? Was there something else you know that you would like to contribute to this that was missed? Thoughts, suggestions, feedback, etc..?

Good News Automotive
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Neutral Perspective: Wars are started “justly” and “unjustly”?

JUSTLY

Which wars were justified? – Historum – History Forums from historum.com
Which wars are morally justified? answers.yahoo.com
\
Is War Ever Justified?It seems to me that more and more people in our society believe…, enotes.com
The Recourse to War as Punishment:
A Historical Theme in Just War Theory
Robert Hoag (Berea College)

(Published February, 2006) historyofethics.org
“… Under what conditions is recourse or going to war morally justified?
How ought a war be conducted or waged (whether going to war is justified or not)?…

Korean War

Why Did America Fight the Korean War?, from youtube.com

DEBATE

Is the Just War Theory Still Relevant? Howard Zinn on History, Principles, Examples (2006)


“Published on Jan 28, 2014

Just war theory (or Bellum iustum) is a doctrine of military ethics of Roman philosophical and Catholic origin, studied by moral theologians, ethicists and international policy makers, which holds that a violent conflict ought to meet philosophical, religious or political criteria.”

-WWII
Was it Wrong to Drop the Atom Bomb on Japan?


“Published on Sep 8, 2014

In recent years, many academics and others have condemned President Truman’s decision to use the atomic bomb on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as unnecessary and immoral. Yet this interpretation relies on a poor understanding of history that both lacks perspective and ignores context. Dropping the bomb shortened the war and saved countless lives — both American and Japanese. In five minutes, Professor of History at Notre Dame, Father Wilson Miscamble, explains.


Was the US justified in dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the Second World War? You debate

Thursday 6th August 2015
Submitted by: Emma McFarnon historyextra.com

For years debate has raged over whether the US was right to drop two atomic bombs on Japan during the final weeks of the Second World War.
This article was first published in July 2014
Debunking the Myth of Why the Atomic Bombs Were Necessary | Brainwash Update


“Published on Oct 28, 2014

Abby reflects on the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and explains why this wasn’t a necessary action in order to end World War II.”
The Hiroshima and Nagasaki film they didn’t want us to see from youtube.com
“Uploaded on Aug 6, 2011

The film Hiroshima-Nagasaki 1945 was created in 1968 from Japanese footage that the US Defense Department had kept hidden for over 20 years. The filmmaker Erik Barnouw offered his 16 minute film to all the US main channels. None of them showed it. Why is obvious when looking at this three minute excert.

The atom bombs dropped by the US on those Japenese cities served no military purpose, as the Japanese were already suing for peace. President Truman, who ordered the bombs to be dropped, lied to the American people when he said that the atom bombs had saved lives and there were few civilian deaths. Up to 200,000 were killed.

Seeing the barbarous effect of these weapons, did our political and military leaders decide to rid the world of them? Far from it. Today’s nuclear weapons make the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs look like water pistols in comparison, and there are enough of them to destroy not just cities but the whole world.

And who has most of these weapons of mass destruction? The only country to ever use them — the United States.”
Our 70th Anniversary Homework: Confronting the Myths and Learning the Lessons of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
by
Joseph Gerson Published on
Friday, July 31, 2015
by
Common Dreams commondreams.org

“…Scholars now know that numerous factors contributed to Truman’s decision to destroy Hiroshima and Nagasaki and their civilian populations. These include Truman’s political calculations as he looked to the 1948 presidential election, vengeance, racism, institutional inertia, and the callousness that came with already having burned more than sixty Japanese cities to the ground.

But, as General Leslie Groves, the commander of the Manhattan Project, told senior scientist Joseph Rotblat, the bombs came to be designed for the Soviet Union. The determinative reasons for the A-bombings were to bring the war to an immediate end so that the US could avoid sharing influence with the USSR in Northern China, Manchuria and Korea and to intimidate Stalin and other Soviet leaders by demonstrating the apocalyptic power of nuclear weapons and Washington’s willingness to use them – even against civilians. Little Boy and Fat Man, as the bombs were named, announced the beginning of the Cold War….”

Korean War

US intervention in Korean War justified — at first – The Boston Globe bostonglobe.com

UNJUSTLY

-United States of America

History of
American False Flag Operations
911review.com
“After the American war of Independence (1776-1779), and an English challenge to that independence (1812-1814) no single nation has planned an offensive war against the USA. It is probable that a strong coalition of Anglo-French-led European nations planned to split the USA into two states through diplomatic recognition of the Confederate states possibly followed up by naval blockade embargoing the Union. At that time the British Empire was the strongest naval power, and the French the second strongest. The events led, however, into the Civil War (1860-1865) and due to the Russian intervention 1863 (1863) on the Union’s side, those European plans were quietly abandoned. ..
*see
U.S. Civil War: The US-Russian Alliance that Saved the Union

by Webster G. Tarpley voltairenet.org

Korean War

Korean War – Facts & Summary – HISTORY.com, history.com
“..On June 25, 1950, the Korean War began when some 75,000 soldiers from the North Korean People’s Army poured across the 38th parallel, the boundary between the Soviet-backed Democratic People’s Republic of Korea to the north and the pro-Western Republic of Korea to the south. This invasion was the first military action of the Cold War. By July, American troops had entered the war on South Korea’s behalf. As far as American officials were concerned, it was a war against the forces of international communism itself. After some early back-and-forth across the 38th parallel, the fighting stalled and casualties mounted with nothing to show for them. Meanwhile, American officials worked anxiously to fashion some sort of armistice with the North Koreans. The alternative, they feared, would be a wider war with Russia and China–or even, as some warned, World War III. Finally, in July 1953, the Korean War came to an end. In all, some 5 million soldiers and civilians lost their lives during the war. ..”
Who Really Started the Korean War?
Forget the Trumanite mythology
by Justin Raimondo, July 29, 2013 original.antiwar.com
“…This is a fairytale: it wasn’t a victory, or even a tie: the US public was disenchanted with the war long before the armistice, and Truman was under considerable pressure at home to conclude an increasingly unpopular conflict. As for this guff about “democracy”: whatever the US was fighting for, from 1950, when the war broke out, to 1953, when it ground to a halt, democracy hardly described the American cause.

We were fighting on behalf of Syngman Rhee, the US-educated-and-sponsored dictator of South Korea, whose vibrancy was demonstrated by the large-scale slaughter of his leftist political opponents. For 22 years, Rhee’s word was law, and many thousands of his political opponents were murdered: tens of thousands were jailed or driven into exile. Whatever measure of liberality has reigned on the Korean peninsula was in spite of Washington’s efforts and ongoing military presence. When the country finally rebelled against Rhee, and threw him out in the so-called April Revolution of 1960, he was ferried to safety in a CIA helicopter as crowds converged on the presidential palace.

..”
The Unknown Truth About Korea: U.S. Sanctioned Death Squads and War Crimes, 1945-1953

January 1, 2000 brianwillson.com
MASH: What Even Die Hard Fans Don’t Know trend-chaser.com

Vietnam Warm

The Truth About Tonkin | U.S. Naval Institute usni.org

“Commander Pat Paterson, U.S.
Navy
Questions about the Gulf of Tonkin incidents have persisted for more than 40 years. But once-classified documents and tapes released in the past several years, combined with previously uncovered facts, make clear that high government officials distorted facts and deceived the American public about events that led to full U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War.

On 2 August 1964, North Vietnamese patrol torpedo boats attacked the USS Maddox (DD-731) while the destroyer was in international waters in the Gulf of Tonkin. There is no doubting that fact. But what happened in the Gulf during the late hours of 4 August—and the consequential actions taken by U.S. officials in Washington—has been seemingly cloaked in confusion and mystery ever since that night.

Nearly 200 documents the National Security Agency (NSA) declassified and released in 2005 and 2006, however, have helped shed light on what transpired in the Gulf of Tonkin on 4 August. The papers, more than 140 of them classified top secret, include phone transcripts, oral-history interviews, signals intelligence (SIGINT) messages, and chronologies of the Tonkin events developed by Department of Defense and NSA officials. Combined with recently declassified tapes of phone calls from White House officials involved with the events and previously uncovered facts about Tonkin, these documents provide compelling evidence about the subsequent decisions that led to the full commitment of U.S. armed forces to the Vietnam War.
Read more


The false flag Gulf of Tonkin Incident Vietnam


“Uploaded on Dec 22, 2008

President Johnson used an alleged attack by North Vietnamese gun boats on U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin to greatly escalate the American War in Vietnam, but the attack never happened. [07:18]
Source: http://linuxbeach.org/
The false flag golf of Tonkin Incident Massive Attack False alex jones false flag government-sponsored terrorism fascism revolution police state martial law New World Order NWO Illuminati war attack new NWO EDF JFK War 911 William Cooper Rebel freedom Wow warcraft secret life UFO Alien Pleiadian obama sex girl Ron Paul God WW Aug 2008 end war georgia combat fight attacked nuclear tanks planes latest breaking august 08/08/08 devlopment Bush Putin conference under fire America president FBI prisone NATO EU New World Order Death legend Lord Dead Soldiers Iraq Iran China Global Universe magic power storm bluebeam Agenda 21 American dol stock Crash Comedy Evolution Dance Canada idf”

Post 9-11: Iraq War

Hidden History: The Anthrax False Flag That Started The Iraq War


“Published on Sep 29, 2012

Rest of the story here: http://blog.alexanderhiggins.com/2012…

On the anniversary of the Anthrax attacks used to justify the Iraq war are now known to have been an inside job and the corporate media blackout continues.

While it is now well known known that the intelligence used to justify invading Iraq was non-existent and fabricated and part of a plan to invade Iraq that existed before 9/11.

But an often overlooked part of the story is how the American public was terrorized by the US government using that intelligence.

While the corporate media has now all but censored revelations that the Anthrax that targeted opponents of the Patriot act and left 5 people dead and dozens more infect was in fact a weaponized version produced by the United States government.

The Bush Administration knew this and top officials were secretly taking CIPRO as the attacks were used to take the “random isolated” incident of 9/11 and deliver that fear into every single household in America by making them worry that Saddam Hussein and radical Muslim terrorist could attack them next while in their own homes.

While knowing the anthrax was produced in one of two high security U.S. bioweapons labs the Bush administration paraded around on TV repeated warning that they had “amassed intelligence” that the Anthrax was in fact produced by Saddam Hussein’s non-existent WMD facilities in Iraq.

Media outlets like ABC and the New York Times did their own “investigative” journalism to reinforce the lie and soon the horror of being attacked by Iraq’s WMDs had been burnt into the psyche of the masses.

Abby Martin, kicking ass on her new RT America show Breaking the Set, reminds us how the Anthrax attacks were an inside job pulled off by Bush administration which were then used to terrorize the public into supporting the Iraq war.

In her latest “Brainwash Update” segment she also discusses the censored history of the attack and points out the unanswered questions that the government refuses to answer.

more:

MI6 produced bogus Iraq war evidence under pressure from Downing Street to justify Iraq Invasion
http://blog.alexanderhiggins.com/2011…

General Wesley Clark Reveals US Plan To Invade Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Lybia, Somalia, Sudan, And Iran Made Just Days after 9/11
http://blog.alexanderhiggins.com/2011…

Declassified! WMD Intel Fabricated To Justify Iraq Invasion For “Prize” Of Oil
http://blog.alexanderhiggins.com/2011…

Rumsfeld’s Intel Chief: Iraq War ‘Greatest Decision of the Century’
http://blog.alexanderhiggins.com/2012…

Watch: Breaking the Set
http://blog.alexanderhiggins.com/tv/u…

Watch: RT America Live
http://blog.alexanderhiggins.com/tv/r…”

Afghanistan

10 most shocking facts we found in CIA torture report Published time: 12 Dec, 2014 16:54 Edited time: 14 Dec, 2014 13:12 rt.com
“..According to the Senate committee’s findings released on Tuesday, the “enhanced interrogation techniques,” or EITs, used against foreign prisoners within the walls of covert, overseas prisons ultimately prove to be largely ineffective. John Brennan, the current director of the CIA, challenged those claims with a lengthy rebuttal on Thursday.

Nevertheless, the executive summary made public this week after four years of research (and at a cost of some $40 million) continues to raise serious questions about the CIA’s use of torture in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks. Now, as the CIA, Senate, and seemingly everyone in Washington, DC debates the committee’s findings, below is but a mere sampling of some of the more shocking details described within the document…”

-World

A Brief History of False Flag Terror
Corbett • 09/12/2013 • 0 Comments corbettreport.com
https://www.corbettreport.com/?powerpress_embed=7980-podcast&powerpress_player=mediaelement-video
“In naval warfare, a “false flag” refers to an attack where a vessel flies a flag other than their true battle flag before engaging their enemy. It is a trick, designed to deceive the enemy about the true nature and origin of an attack.

In the democratic era, where governments require at least a plausible pretext before sending their nation to war, it has been adapted as a psychological warfare tactic to deceive a government’s own population into believing that an enemy nation has attacked them.

In the 1780s, Swedish King Gustav III was looking for a way to unite an increasingly divided nation and raise his own falling political fortunes. Deciding that a war with Russia would be a sufficient distraction but lacking the political authority to send the nation to war unilaterally, he arranged for the head tailor of the Swedish Opera House to sew some Russian military uniforms. Swedish troops were then dressed in the uniforms and sent to attack Sweden’s own Finnish border post along the Russian border. The citizens in Stockholm, believing it to be a genuine Russian attack, were suitably outraged, and the Swedish-Russian War of 1788-1790 began.

In 1931 the Japan was looking for a pretext to invade Manchuria. On September 18th of that year, a Lieutenant in the Imperial Japanese Army detonated a small amount of TNT along a Japanese-owned railway in the Manchurian city of Mukden. The act was blamed on Chinese dissidents and used to justify the occupation of Manchuria just six months later. When the deception was later exposed, Japan was diplomatically shunned and forced to withdraw from the League of Nations.

In 1939 Heinrich Himmler masterminded a plan to convince the public that Germany was the victim of Polish aggression in order to justify the invasion of Poland. It culminated in an attack on Sender Gleiwitz, a German radio station near the Polish border, by Polish prisoners who were dressed up in Polish military uniforms, shot dead, and left at the station. The Germans then broadcast an anti-German message in Polish from the station, pretended that it had come from a Polish military unit that had attacked Sender Gleiwitz, and presented the dead bodies as evidence of the attack. Hitler invaded Poland immediately thereafter, starting World War II.

In 1954 the Israelis hired a number of Egyptian Jews to plant bombs in American and British cinemas, libraries, and other civilian targets to be blamed on the Muslim Brotherhood or other malcontents. The plan, known as the Lavon Affair, was part of an effort to convince the British to retain their military presence in the occupied Suez Canal zone. Several bombings took place, but the British were ultimately forced out after Nasser nationalized the canal in 1956.

In 1962 the US Joint Chiefs of Staff authored a document called Operation Northwoods calling for the US government to stage a series of fake attacks, including the shooting down of military or civilian US aircraft, the destruction of a US ship, sniper attacks in Washington, and other atrocities, to blame on the Cubans as an excuse for launching an invasion. President Kennedy refused to sign off on the plan and was killed in Dallas the next year.

In August 1964 the USS Maddox, a US destroyer on patrol in the Gulf of Tonkin, believed it had come under attack from North Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats, engaging in evasive action and returning fire. The incident led to the Gulf of Tonkin resolution authorizing President Johnson to begin open warfare in Vietnam. It was later admitted that no attack had occurred, and in 2005 it was revealed that the NSA had manipulated their information to make it look like an attack had taken place.

In June 1967 the Israelis attacked the USS Liberty, a US Navy technical research ship, off the coast of Egypt. The ship was strafed relentlessly for hours in an apparent attempt to blame the attack on Egypt and draw the Americans into the Six Day War, but amazingly the crew managed to keep it afloat. In 2007 newly released NSA intercepts confirmed that the Israelis knew they were attacking an American ship, not an Egyptian ship as their cover story has maintained.

In the fall of 1999, a wave of bloody apartment bombings swept through Russian cities, killing 293 people and causing widespread panic. Although blamed on the Chechen terrorists that the Russians were fighting in the Second Chechen War, FSB agents were caught planting the exact same type of bombs as in the other blasts later that month. The government claimed that the bomb was part of a security exercise and Vladimir Putin came to power as the next Russian President on the back of the terror wave later that year.

In 2001, attacks in New York and Washington are blamed on Al Qaeda as a pretext for invading Afghanistan. In the months leading up to the event, American negotiators had warned Afghanistan’s Taliban that they were interested in securing right of way for proposed pipeline projects, and the US would achieve this with either a carpet of gold or a carpet of bombs. The Bush administration’s first major national security directive, NSPD-9, a full-scale battle plan for the invasion of Afghanistan, including command and control, air and ground forces, and logistics, was drafted and sitting on the President’s desk to be signed off on September 4, 2001, seven days before the 9/11 attacks. The invasion proceeded as planned in October.

These are but a few of the hundreds of such incidents that have been staged over the centuries to blame political enemies for attacks that they did not commit. The tactic remains in common use today, and will continue to be employed as long as populations still blindly believe whatever their governments tell them about the origins of spectacular terror incidents.”

While Everyone Was Busy Being Distracted by Texas…
https://youtu.be/AWGof4StIQo
Truthstream Media
Published on Nov 7, 2017
*Iran War??

What other significant wars do you know that has been “Justly” or “unjustly” started?

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