Deep Thought: Where are the “original” Tribes of Israel?

12 Tribes of Israel Today: Who Are They? lifehopeandtruth.com

“..Two kingdoms

After they spent time as slaves in Egypt, God delivered Abraham’s descendants and allowed them to form the ancient nation of Israel. Over time, 10 of the tribes formed the northern kingdom of Israel and two of the tribes formed the southern kingdom of Judah. Due to their breaking of His laws, God allowed the northern kingdom to be taken captive by the Assyrians and, later, the southern kingdom to be taken by the Babylonians…”

The 12 Tribes Of Israel And Who They Are – YouTube

Where are the 10 Lost Tribes of Israel Today? The Prophecy of the Return

What Are Judaism’s Lost Tribes? By MJL Staff myjewishlearning.com
Who were they and where are they now?

“..After King Solomon died around 922 BCE, the tribes split into two kingdoms as a result of a power struggle. The northern kingdom consisted of Reuben, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Ephraim, and Menasseh. The southern kingdom was composed of Judah, Simeon, and most of Benjamin (often it was referred to simply as Judah).

In 722 BCE Assyria invaded Israel, and the northern kingdom was conquered. Many of the people who lived in the northern kingdom were exiled, mainly to Assyria, Media, and Aram-Naharaim…”

Northern Kingdom-10 Tribes

THE NORTHERN KINGDOM ISRAEL – YouTube

Quest for the Lost (10) Tribes of Israel – Documentary [Full] – YouTube

The Ten Lost Tribes | Where They Went, What They Are … – YouTube

Where Are the Ten Lost Tribes? By Yehuda Shurpin chabad.org/
The saga of the ten lost tribes of Israel—Part 3
“..So, Where Are They?

While there haven’t been any other major reports of “actual” emissaries from the ten lost tribes, there have been many other supposed discoveries and sightings of the ten lost tribes by travelers and explorers throughout history.27 This has resulted in an abundance of theories, however far-fetched they may be, about their present-day whereabouts. The list includes places such as Africa, Japan, China, India, Afghanistan, Kurdistan, the Caucasus, Yemen, Persia, and even the Americas.

Before the entire globe was explored, people postulated that perhaps the tribes were in some yet undiscovered region. Speculation spiked with the discovery of the Americas, the “new world.”28 In 1655, the great Jewish philosopher and advocate Rabbi Manasseh ben Israel used the theory that the Native Americans were descended from the ten tribes to support his petition to Oliver Cromwell for the Jews’ readmittance into Britain.29 (They had been expelled by King Edward I in 1290.)..”

Where are the Ten Lost Tribes? pbs.org

Americas

-Multiculturally Diverse

Who are the 12 tribes of Israel today?

-Natives (Ephraim)

Are Native Americans Part of the Ten Lost Tribes? By Adam Eliyahu Berkowitz October 25, 2016 , 12:30 pm breakingisraelnews.com
“..Unmistakable traces of Jewish prayer echo in the voice of Joseph Riverwind, the Amahura (war chief) of the Northern Arawak Nation, the indigenous peoples of South America and Caribbean, as he sings, “Shema, shema, nayena, popaska hoya yah”. He translated this ancient Native American song for Breaking Israel News:

“Listen, listen, people, as you gather together, we will dance before the creator.” This is strongly reminiscent of the Jewish prayer, Shema, which literally means ‘hear’. ..

“Among my people, our ancient name for God is Yah Yah ‘The Supreme Spirit of Spirits’, very similar to Yahweh,” Chief Riverwind explained. “Among my wife’s ancestors, the AniKituwahYah (Cherokee), they called God YoHeWaH. And the similarities don’t stop there. They carried an ark into battle, celebrate seven feasts, kept a seventh day of rest, had cities of refuge, and don’t eat pork.”..

“Some Anishnabi (Chippewa) believe they are from the Tribe of Ephraim,” Chief Riverwind explained. “Anishnabi” is amazing similar to the Hebrew words, “Anshe Navi” (people of the Prophet). “They lived on the coast, but their legends say that before that, they came from across the great waters. We have cave-drawings of these ships that are very similar to drawings of Phoenician ships in history books.”..”

=> Gad

WE ARE FALSELY CALLED INDIANS. WE ARE THE TRIBE OF GAD. 1 OF THE 12 TRIBE OF ISRAEL

Native Elder Speaks With Israelites

Southern Kingdom-2 Tribes

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Neutral Perspective: Interracial marriage is wrong or right?

WRONG

-African Perspective

The Bible Says Interracial Marriage Is a Sin!


“Published on Jun 17, 2014

Marrying outside of your race is wickedness according to the bible. For more information, please visit http://fwisrael.org/”

WHAT the BIBLE Say about Interracial Marriage? It is a SIN: GOD Forbids


“Published on Mar 5, 2016

Isaiah 13:14-16 (KJV)
14 And it(Whiteman) shall be as the chased roe, and as a sheep that no man taketh up: they shall every man turn to his own people, and flee every one into his own land.
15 Every one that is found shall be thrust through; and every one that is joined(Married) unto them shall fall by the sword.
16 Their children(Whiteman) also shall be dashed to pieces before their eyes; their houses shall be spoiled, and their wives ravished.”

RIGHT

-Biblical

What does the Bible Say About Interracial Marriages bibleinfo.com

What Does the Bible Say About Interracial Marriage?


“Published on Dec 30, 2013

A biblical perspective about Interracial couples and Interracial dating.”

“Interracial Marriage” Baptist Preaching (independent, fundamental, KJV sermon)


“Published on Sep 22, 2014

http://www.faithfulwordbaptist.org/pa… Here is the link to make an online donation to Faithful Word Baptist Church: http://www.truebornsons.com/donate-to…”

Thoughts, suggestions, personal story, feedback, comments, prayer, etc..?

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Deep Thought: Should I get my DNA Tested?

How Safe is Your Information When You Use a DNA Testing Kit?
by Jessa Barron October 22, 2015 nextadvisor.com
“..They can help us discover more about our origins and even help us connect to family members we didn’t know we had. While there are questions about how these tests are completed, one of the more pertinent questions relates to the security of these tests. Many are concerned with who has access to your DNA test once it’s sent back into the lab and what the lab can legally do with your DNA. To help you determine how safe your information is if you use a DNA testing kit, we answer some of the most common questions when it comes to protecting your information and test results…”

Risks of DNA Testing in Search for Ancestors May 30, 20069:00 AM ET npr.org

“..I should point out that, when you look at the mitochondria and you look at the Y chromosome, it is only looking at one chapter in the 23 chapters of the DNA history. And DNA is, if you want to think about it in a more practical term, it’s like a tape recorder. And it records all of your ancestral migrations, and it has nothing to do with politics, or race, or religion. It is only recording those events, and half of it comes from your mother and half of it comes from your father. But it’s not always equal.

So, that being said, parents and children do not necessarily always inherit, let’s say the minor components of a genetic ancestry. So you might have three children, and one child would inherit, let’s say, a 15 percent sub-Saharan African content, and the second child will inherit none. And that’s just the DNA shuffle, as we call it. ..

But we also know that this DNA and this racial categorization is used in forensics and in criminology, in ways that your own privacy might be subject to a court order, for example. To find out if any relatives in your family might be involved in some activity. “

What DNA Testing Companies’ Terrifying Privacy Policies Actually Mean Kristen V. Brown Senior Writer, Gizmodo. gizmodo.com
‘..Lucky for you, Gizmodo slogged though every line of Ancestry.com, 23andMe, and Helix’s privacy, terms of service, and research policies with the help of experts in privacy, law and consumer protection. It wasn’t fun. We fell asleep at least once. And what we found wasn’t pretty.

“It’s basically like you have no privacy, they’re taking it all,” said Joel Winston, a consumer protection lawyer. “When it comes to DNA tests, don’t assume you have any rights.”..

here’s what you need to know before giving away your genetic information.
Testing companies can claim ownership of your DNA

Okay, so your DNA is inside of you. A corporation can’t really claim ownership of it. But they can claim ownership of the DNA sample you send them, and the analysis they run on it, including the resulting information on the makeup of your genome.

When it comes to Ancestry, while the company recently revised its policy to state that it “does not claim any ownership rights in the DNA that is submitted for testing,” another clause in its policies asserts that even if they don’t actually own your DNA, the company can use that DNA basically however it wants: …

Pitts also pointed out that if a genetic testing company was bought, there’s no telling how a new owner might handle the data….

The other thing that’s clear is that genetic testing companies are definitely selling information to third parties for medical research in order to make money. ..

Not to mention, while the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act allegedly prevents health insurers and workplaces from discriminating based on your genetic information, gaps in the law mean that life, long-term care, or disability insurance providers as well as the military can still make decisions based on findings from your DNA. ..

Genetic testing companies may promise to not share information with insurers without your consent, but that doesn’t stop an insurer from asking you whether you have ever taken any genetic tests. And if the answer is yes, you could be compelled to share information relevant to your health. (A new health care bill and seemingly stalled legislation introduced last March in the house both further threaten to challenge protections that allow you to keep your genetic information private.)…

If you do not read those documents—and many don’t—you’re missing the fine print that explains how your DNA can be used, misused, leaked, hacked, sold and commodified without your knowledge or deliberate consent.

Privacy risks lurk in DNA tests, experts warn By Patrick Cain National Online Journalist, News Global News August 15, 2016 8:00 am globalnews.ca
“..But others are curious about the complex, highly personal information about you coded in your DNA: drug companies, insurers, sometimes police.

And once you put your cheek swab in the mail, you risk permanently losing control over a complete copy of your genetic data, linked to your real identity.
Related

Should insurers see the secrets locked in your genes?
Liberal MP Rob Oliphant announces bill to prevent genetic discrimination
Internet of Things our ‘biggest threat to privacy,’ expert warns

“I think you have to assume that you’re going to lose control over that information,” warns Ann Cavoukian, a former Ontario privacy commissioner who runs the Privacy and Big Data Institute at Ryerson University…

Closing a 23andMe account doesn’t necessarily mean the company’s copy of your genetic data will disappear:

“We allow customers to close their accounts. It’s a bit complicated by our regulatory compliance for laboratories in the United States, which requires that raw information be held for a minimum of 10 years. The information will be de-identified, but will continue to be stored for that set amount of time.”…”

…Your genetic data can show your odds of getting diseases, like the BRCA1 genetic mutation that can mean a much higher risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Some diseases, like Huntington’s disease, are genetic, and susceptibility can be read from someone’s genetic information. With the science of genetics in its infancy, it’s impossible to know what can be told about you from your DNA in the future.

“With genetic data, it is very concrete, in terms of a road map to your physical conditions,” Cavoukian says….

“We are very clear that users own and control their data,” ancestry.com spokesperson Patrick Erlich wrote in an e-mail. “They can download it, ask us to delete it and destroy the sample, and can revoke their opt-in consent to participate in research projects at any time.”

“As disclosed in our policies, DNA samples are stored without personally identifying information at either a testing laboratory or other storage facility and may be kept by us unless or until circumstances require us to destroy the sample, or it is no longer suitable for testing purposes. ”

So what should an individual do? Like any other decision about digital privacy, the answer really comes down to your own comfort level, and how you perceive the trade-off between some information now and a potential privacy breach in the future…”
CORRECTION: Ancestry.com Hands Over Client DNA Test Results to Cops Witho̶u̶t̶ a Warrant*-
A pretty good way to discourage people from using gene testing services

Ronald Bailey|May. 6, 2015 1:11 pm reason.com/blog

-Health Liabilities?

The Risks and Benefits of 23andMe DNA Analysis | Healdove healdove.com

“..
In the event of corporate bankruptcy, consumers’ genetic data would likely be considered a corporate asset and sold. That is what happened when deCODE, a prior competitor of 23andMe, went bankrupt in 2009. Pharmaceutical giant Amgen purchased the company in December 2012 for $415M, in part for its large data bank.

You may learn about your own health risks or carrier status and by extension the potential risks and carrier status of your relatives…”

Is home genetic testing safe and reliable? – The Feed

Differences Between Companies

Ancestry DNA vs 23andMe: Full Comparison

23andMe, Ancestry and Selling Your DNA Information 23andMe, Posted on December 30, 2015 dna-explained.com
“..However, opting out of his higher level DOES NOT stop the company from utilizing, sharing or selling your anonymized DNA and data. Anonymized data means your identity and what they consider identifying information has been removed.

Many people think that if you opt-out, your DNA and data is never shared or sold, but according to 23andMe and Ancestry’s own documentation, that’s not true. Opt-out is not truly opt-out. It’s only opting out of them sharing your non-anonymized data – meaning just the higher level of participation only. They still share your anonymized data in aggregated fashion…”
Uprooted: The dangers of DNA testing
Virginia Hughes | October 1, 2013 | MATTER geneticliteracyproject.org
“Searching your genetic ancestry can certainly be fun: You can trace the migration patterns of 10,000-year-old ancestors, or discover whether a distant relative ruled a continent or rode on the Mayflower. But the technology can just as easily unearth more private acts—infidelities, sperm donations, adoptions—of more recent generations, including previously unknown behaviors of your grandparents, parents, and even spouses. Family secrets have never been so vulnerable…”

Problems with AncestryDNA’s Genetic Ethnicity Prediction? Blaine Bettinger19 June 2012 201 Comments thegeneticgenealogist.com
“…
Different Reference Populations and Algorithms

As I suggested above, different companies use different reference populations and algorithms to create a biogeographical estimate, which can result in varying estimates.

For example, in my previous review of AncestryDNA’s Genetic Ethnicity Prediction, I compared my genetic ethnicity results from three companies (Ancestry.com, 23andMe, and FTDNA), and found that their results varied considerably. I’m not surprised by this, but I do expect that over time – as the industry arrives at more standard reference populations and algorithms (which the cheap whole-genome sequencing revolution will enable) – that estimates from different companies will align much more closely. Be patient and enjoy being a pioneer…”

-Results didn’t show?

Ask Ancestry Anne: Where Is My Native American DNA? blogs.ancestry.com
“..So how much of your great-great-grandmother’s DNA are you likely to have? Probably around 1.5625%! And that may not be enough to detect Native American ethnicity.

dna percentage2

If you can find older generations on that line to test, I recommend that. Also, get brothers, sisters and cousins tested. You never know who might have enough DNA to be detected.

Even if you find the DNA connection, you will still want to follow the paper trail. I recommend our Native American Research Guide to get you started.

Happy searching!.”

At-Home DNA Tests Might Not Be as Accurate as You Think
https://youtu.be/B0WMjDqIYH0
“Seeker
Published on Aug 11, 2017
DNA tests are a popular resource for people wanting to understand their ancestry and disease probability. But how accurate are these tests?

We Got Our DNA Tested, Here’s How It Actually Works – https://youtu.be/dbiv6BAmdF4

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Read More:

Seeking Ancestry in DNA Ties Uncovered by Tests

http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/12/us/…

“Genetic tests, once obscure tools for scientists, have begun to influence everyday lives in many ways. The tests are reshaping people’s sense of themselves – where they came from, why they behave as they do, what disease might be coming their way.”

Revamped DNA Test Kit Back on Shelves

https://www.seeker.com/revamped-dna-t…

“The company also promised ‘personalized insights based on analysis of 650,000 genetic variations,’ and the ‘only service available direct-to-consumer with reports that meet FDA standards.'”

DNA Test Sheds Light on Mystery Deaths

https://www.seeker.com/dna-test-sheds…

“A new DNA test can restore at least part of the identity of long-dead people who left no trace of their image, scientists reported on Monday. The technique has revealed the hair and eye colours of unknown individuals slaughtered as sub-humans by the Nazis and of a mystery woman buried alongside monks in a mediaeval crypt, they said.”

____________________

Seeker inspires us to see the world through the lens of science and evokes a sense of curiosity, optimism and adventure.

-> Triplets

These Stunning Triplets Took A DNA Test With Unexpected Results! hooch.net

…As far as genetics goes, all three of the triplets had their result show up as being 99% European. However, it was when that percentage began to be broken down that some real discrepancies began to arise. As the results were revealed on the show, the girls, the audience and even the doctors themselves were more and more shocked at the results. First, it was revealed that Erica had around 16% Irish and British ancestry, however Nicole had 18% Irish and British ancestry. Well, that seems to be fairly minor so far right? It was only going to get crazier as more was revealed! ..l

Different Ancestry?

The rest of the results continued to deviate from what was expected. The 23andMe test showed that while all three girls had French and German heritage, each triplet had a different percentage. Nicole had 11% French and German, Jaclyn had 18% and Erica had 22.3%. Twenty-two to eleven percent seems like a pretty drastic difference for triplets with identical DNA. For their Doctors segment, each time a new percentage was revealed it would flash on the screen and the audience would react in absolute amazement. The girls themselves were also clearly very confused about how their differing results could happen.

The final ethnicity to be revealed was the girls’ Scandinavian heritage. And for this one, yet another shocker was revealed. Two of the girls, Erica and Jaclyn both had the exact same results with the same percentage of Scandinavian ancestry at 7.4%. However, Nicole had a totally different and higher percentage at 11.4% Scandinavian. The Doctors, the Inside Edition reporter, and the Dahm triplets themselves were totally shocked at the amazing results. It turns out, these amazing ancestry DNA results might reveal even more about DNA science than previously known…
Dr. Travis Stork said, “I think the answer here is that we’ve come so far in terms of genetic testing, but you can’t just spit in a cup and have every single answer that you are looking for.” On Inside Edition, another set of triplets had similar results with another DNA kit. Only one set of triplets had results that were extremely close which was a test done with Ancestry DNA. Perhaps one day, at-home testing for ancestry will become even more streamlined and accurate. However, in the meantime it’s definitely interesting to get a peek inside where your ancestors may have descended from many years ago!

The at-home tests seem to be imperfect as far as percentages go, however they do undoubtedly offer insight into one’s background and ethnic makeup. Lisa mentioned on the show that while she was very interested in pursuing her own ethnic background, she might not go the route of the at-home DNA test. Instead, she said she would probably have a personalized test run by a doctor or genetic scientist. This kind of testing is definitely on the more expensive side, but are probably far more accurate. However, if you’re on a limited budget but still want to know more, an at-home test certainly won’t do you any harm! …

Family Roots
Elie Dolgin
January 18, 2011 Kurt Hoffman forward.com
“…
DNA tests to uncover Jewish origins have been offered for decades by companies such as Houston-based Family Tree DNA and DNA Tribes of Arlington, Va. They have shown, for example, that many Hispanic Americans likely descended from Jews who were forced to convert or hide their religion more than 500 years ago in Spain and Portugal. Yet although standard ancestry-testing platforms can point to centuries-old Jewish origins, none would have flagged Pickrell’s relatively recent Semitic pedigree.

That’s because most DNA tests have traditionally relied on only two small parts of the genome: the Y-chromosome, which is passed down almost unchanged from father to son, and mitochondria, which mothers pass faithfully to their offspring. Because these stretches of DNA remain relatively consistent from one generation to the next, they are particularly useful for testing direct-line paternal and maternal ancestry, respectively; however, they essentially ignore the bulk of someone’s DNA ancestry and cannot detect genetic signatures that cross gender lines…

CeCe Moore, a 41-year-old amateur genealogist who runs a television production company in Orange County, Calif., is one such customer. In 2008, Moore tested her mitochondrial DNA and her father’s Y chromosome, but found no traces of Jewish heritage. Then, last year, she obtained her DNA readout from 23andMe and learned that a small but significant amount of her genome appeared to be of Ashkenazi origin…”

momondo – The DNA Journey


“Published on Sep 30, 2010

Ola tells CNN’s World’s Untold Stories about her experience when she found out her Neo-Nazi husband was also Jewish.”

My Dad isn’t my “Dad”

READING MY ANCESTRY DNA RESULTS! I BEEN LIED TO MY ENTIRE LIFE!

ANCESTRY DNA RESULTS! *SHOCKING* HER DAD ISN’T HER REAL DAD

OTHERS

CNN: Neo-Nazi Skinhead finds out he is Jewish

Crime

5 things to know about the Golden State Killer’s case Author: Staff
Published: 11:07 AM PDT April 27, 2018
Updated: 1:11 PM PDT April 27, 2018 kare11.com
ABC10’s Walt Gray sat down with criminal defense attorney Don Heller to learn more about what’s next for the suspect as he awaits his legal fate.
“..4. Genealogy plays a major role in this case. Investigators used a free genealogy website to connect the killer’s to the crimes. Lead investigator Paul Holes said authorities didn’t need a court order to access GEDMatch’s large database. Heller explained, the information collected about the East Area Rapist’s distant relatives from the site was enough to move the case forward. ..”

Ever got your DNA tested? Why or why not? What did you find out? Any other comments, suggestions, feedback, questions, etc… regarding the content above or not mentioned that you suggest me sharing here?

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Spotlight: Who was Martin Luther King Jr.?

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. drmartinlutherkingjr.com
The Greatest Orator For Peace And Love
“..The ultimate weakness of violence
is that it is a descending spiral,
begetting the very thing it seeks to destroy.
Instead of diminishing evil, it multiplies it.
Through violence you may murder the liar,
but you cannot murder the lie, nor establish the truth.
Through violence you murder the hater,
but you do not murder hate.
In fact, violence merely increases hate….
Returning violence for violence multiples violence,
adding deeper darkness to a night already devoid of stars.
Darkness cannot drive out darkness; only light can do that.
Hate cannot drive out hate; only love can do that.
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr…”

Martin Luther King, Jr. – Mini Bio


“Uploaded on Jan 8, 2010

A short biography of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He is widely considered the most influential leader of the American civil rights movement. He fought to overturn Jim Crow segregation laws and eliminate social and economic differences between blacks and whites. King’s speeches and famous quotes continue to inspire millions today.

20 Interesting Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Facts todayifoundout.com
“1) His name was originally Michael, not Martin. His father was also Michael King, hence why Martin Luther King Jr. was originally named Michael King Jr. However, after a trip to Germany in 1931, Michael King Sr. changed his own name in homage to historic German theologian Martin Luther. Michael King Jr. was two years old at the time and King Sr. made the decision to change his son’s name to Martin Luther as well….

3) King wasn’t the only one to die at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis on April 4, 1968. After he was killed, one of the hotel workers, Lorraine Bailey (who was also the wife of the motel owner and who it was named after), upon seeing King get shot, had a heart attack and later died from this.

4) Also on the day King was killed, he was out on the balcony for a smoke. While you’ll be hard pressed to find a picture of him smoking, he smoked regularly, though had a habit of hiding this partially due to the stigma, particularly within the church at the time, but also because he didn’t want his kids to take up smoking, and so didn’t like pictures of himself doing it, nor did he like to smoke when they were around. …

7) He almost didn’t become a minister. After graduating from college, he still had serious doubts about Christianity and the Bible and told his father (who was a Baptist minister, as his grandfather had also been) that he didn’t want to be a minister and instead was considering becoming a doctor or a lawyer. He later decided that the Bible had “many profound truths which one cannot escape” and chose to become a minister, entering seminary at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania. …

10) King convinced “Uhura” on Star Trek, Nichelle Nichols (who incidentally later went on to work for NASA), to continue on with the role after the first season. Nichols stated he told her not to leave the show because she was not only playing a black person as a main character on TV, but she was also playing a character that didn’t conform to the stereotypical black person of the day, usually portrayed. Rather, Uhura was portrayed as an intelligent member of the crew and an equal to those around her….”

*see Nichelle Nichols imdb.com
“..was born Grace Nichols on December 28, 1932 in Robbins, Illinois. She began her show business career at age 16 as a singer with Duke Ellington in a ballet she created for one of his compositions and later sang with his band. After switching to acting, she was twice nominated for the Sarah Siddons Award for best actress in “The …..”

SPEECHES

The Archive | The Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social … thekingcenter.org

“..There are nearly a million documents associated with the life of Martin Luther King Jr. These pages will present a more dynamic view than is often seen of Dr. King’s life and times. The documents reveal the scholar, the father, and the pastor. Through these papers we see the United States of America at one of its most vulnerable, most honest and perhaps most human moments in history. There are letters bearing the official marks of royalty and the equally regal compositions of children. You will see speeches, telegrams, scribbled notes, patient admonitions and urgent pleas. This spotlight shows you a glimpse of the remarkable history within this collection…”
The Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr. npr.org
Remembering Key Addresses, Sermons by the Civil Rights Leader
Martin Luther King, Jr. | National Archives archives.gov

“..Martin Luther King, Jr.

On August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr., delivered a speech to a massive group of civil rights marchers gathered around the Lincoln memorial in Washington DC. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom brought together the nations most prominent civil rights leaders, along with tens of thousands of marchers, to press the United States government for equality. The culmination of this event was the influential and most memorable speech of Dr. King’s career. Popularly known as the “I have a Dream” speech, the words of Martin Luther King, Jr. influenced the Federal government to take more direct actions to more fully realize racial equality.

Mister Maestro, Inc., and Twentieth Century Fox Records Company recorded the speech and offered the recording for sale. Dr. King and his attorneys claimed that the speech was copyrighted and the recording violated that copyright. The court found in favor of Dr. King. Among the papers filed in the case and available at the National Archives at New York City is a deposition given by Martin Luther King, Jr. and signed in his own hand…”

Martin Luther King – I Have A Dream Speech – August 28, 1963 (Full Speech)


“Published on Jan 21, 2013

Subscribe
-~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
I Have a Dream Speech
Martin Luther King’s Address at March on Washington
August 28, 1963. Washington, D.C.
..”

Related:

My Country ‘Tis of Thee (arr. D. Willcocks) — Washington National Cathedral Choir , from youtube.com

Martin Luther King Speaks! “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” (Full) , from youtube.com
“Published on Jun 10, 2015

Martin Luther King Speaks! “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” (Full)
3 April 1968 Memphis, Tennessee. Would would become King’s final speech, he talks in support of striking Memphis sanitation workers.

Martin Luther King’s Final Speech: ‘I’ve Been to the Mountaintop’ — The Full Text By THE REV MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. MEMPHIS, Tenn., April 3, 1968 abcnews.go.com

Thank you very kindly, my friends. As I listened to Ralph Abernathy and his eloquent and generous introduction and then thought about myself, I wondered who he was talking about. It’s always good to have your closest friend and associate to say something good about you. And Ralph Abernathy is the best friend that I have in the world. I’m delighted to see each of you here tonight in spite of a storm warning. You reveal that you are determined to go on anyhow.

Something is happening in Memphis; something is happening in our world. And you know, if I were standing at the beginning of time, with the possibility of taking a kind of general and panoramic view of the whole of human history up to now, and the Almighty said to me, “Martin Luther King, which age would you like to live in?” I would take my mental flight by Egypt and I would watch God’s children in their magnificent trek from the dark dungeons of Egypt through, or rather across the Red Sea, through the wilderness on toward the promised land. And in spite of its magnificence, I wouldn’t stop there.

I would move on by Greece and take my mind to Mount Olympus. And I would see Plato, Aristotle, Socrates, Euripides and Aristophanes assembled around the Parthenon. And I would watch them around the Parthenon as they discussed the great and eternal issues of reality. But I wouldn’t stop there.

I would go on, even to the great heyday of the Roman Empire. And I would see developments around there, through various emperors and leaders. But I wouldn’t stop there.

I would even come up to the day of the Renaissance, and get a quick picture of all that the Renaissance did for the cultural and aesthetic life of man. But I wouldn’t stop there.

I would even go by the way that the man for whom I am named had his habitat. And I would watch Martin Luther as he tacked his ninety-five theses on the door at the church of Wittenberg. But I wouldn’t stop there. I would come on up even to 1863, and watch a vacillating President by the name of Abraham Lincoln finally come to the conclusion that he had to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. But I wouldn’t stop there.

I would even come up to the early thirties, and see a man grappling with the problems of the bankruptcy of his nation. And come with an eloquent cry that we have nothing to fear but “fear itself.” But I wouldn’t stop there. Strangely enough, I would turn to the Almighty, and say, “If you allow me to live just a few years in the second half of the 20th century, I will be happy.”

Now that’s a strange statement to make, because the world is all messed up. The nation is sick. Trouble is in the land; confusion all around. That’s a strange statement. But I know, somehow, that only when it is dark enough can you see the stars. And I see God working in this period of the twentieth century in a way that men, in some strange way, are responding. Something is happening in our world. The masses of people are rising up. And wherever they are assembled today, whether they are in Johannesburg, South Africa; Nairobi, Kenya; Accra, Ghana; New York City; Atlanta, Georgia; Jackson, Mississippi; or Memphis, Tennessee — the cry is always the same: “We want to be free.”

And another reason that I’m happy to live in this period is that we have been forced to a point where we are going to have to grapple with the problems that men have been trying to grapple with through history, but the demands didn’t force them to do it. Survival demands that we grapple with them. Men, for years now, have been talking about war and peace. But now, no longer can they just talk about it. It is no longer a choice between violence and nonviolence in this world; it’s nonviolence or nonexistence. That is where we are today.

And also in the human rights revolution, if something isn’t done, and done in a hurry, to bring the colored peoples of the world out of their long years of poverty, their long years of hurt and neglect, the whole world is doomed. Now, I’m just happy that God has allowed me to live in this period to see what is unfolding. And I’m happy that He’s allowed me to be in Memphis.

I can remember — I can remember when Negroes were just going around as Ralph has said, so often, scratching where they didn’t itch, and laughing when they were not tickled. But that day is all over. We mean business now, and we are determined to gain our rightful place in God’s world.

And that’s all this whole thing is about. We aren’t engaged in any negative protest and in any negative arguments with anybody. We are saying that we are determined to be men. We are determined to be people. We are saying — We are saying that we are God’s children. And that we are God’s children, we don’t have to live like we are forced to live.

Now, what does all of this mean in this great period of history? It means that we’ve got to stay together. We’ve got to stay together and maintain unity. You know, whenever Pharaoh wanted to prolong the period of slavery in Egypt, he had a favorite, favorite formula for doing it. What was that? He kept the slaves fighting among themselves. But whenever the slaves get together, something happens in Pharaoh’s court, and he cannot hold the slaves in slavery. When the slaves get together, that’s the beginning of getting out of slavery. Now let us maintain unity.

Secondly, let us keep the issues where they are. The issue is injustice. The issue is the refusal of Memphis to be fair and honest in its dealings with its public servants, who happen to be sanitation workers. Now, we’ve got to keep attention on that. That’s always the problem with a little violence. You know what happened the other day, and the press dealt only with the window-breaking. I read the articles. They very seldom got around to mentioning the fact that one thousand, three hundred sanitation workers are on strike, and that Memphis is not being fair to them, and that Mayor Loeb is in dire need of a doctor. They didn’t get around to that.

Now we’re going to march again, and we’ve got to march again, in order to put the issue where it is supposed to be — and force everybody to see that there are thirteen hundred of God’s children here suffering, sometimes going hungry, going through dark and dreary nights wondering how this thing is going to come out. That’s the issue. And we’ve got to say to the nation: We know how it’s coming out. For when people get caught up with that which is right and they are willing to sacrifice for it, there is no stopping point short of victory. We aren’t going to let any mace stop us. We are masters in our nonviolent movement in disarming police forces; they don’t know what to do. I’ve seen them so often. I remember in Birmingham, Alabama, when we were in that majestic struggle there, we would move out of the 16th Street Baptist Church day after day; by the hundreds we would move out. And Bull Connor would tell them to send the dogs forth, and they did come; but we just went before the dogs singing, “Ain’t gonna let nobody turn me around.”

Bull Connor next would say, “Turn the fire hoses on.” And as I said to you the other night, Bull Connor didn’t know history. He knew a kind of physics that somehow didn’t relate to the transphysics that we knew about. And that was the fact that there was a certain kind of fire that no water could put out. And we went before the fire hoses; we had known water. If we were Baptist or some other denominations, we had been immersed. If we were Methodist, and some others, we had been sprinkled, but we knew water. That couldn’t stop us.

And we just went on before the dogs and we would look at them; and we’d go on before the water hoses and we would look at it, and we’d just go on singing “Over my head I see freedom in the air.” And then we would be thrown in the paddy wagons, and sometimes we were stacked in there like sardines in a can. And they would throw us in, and old Bull would say, “Take ’em off,” and they did; and we would just go in the paddy wagon singing, “We Shall Overcome.”

And every now and then we’d get in jail, and we’d see the jailers looking through the windows being moved by our prayers, and being moved by our words and our songs. And there was a power there which Bull Connor couldn’t adjust to; and so we ended up transforming Bull into a steer, and we won our struggle in Birmingham. Now we’ve got to go on in Memphis just like that. I call upon you to be with us when we go out Monday.

Now about injunctions: We have an injunction and we’re going into court tomorrow morning to fight this illegal, unconstitutional injunction. All we say to America is, “Be true to what you said on paper.” If I lived in China or even Russia, or any totalitarian country, maybe I could understand some of these illegal injunctions. Maybe I could understand the denial of certain basic First Amendment privileges, because they hadn’t committed themselves to that over there.

But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of the freedom of speech.

Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right to protest for right. And so just as I say, we aren’t going to let dogs or water hoses turn us around, we aren’t going to let any injunction turn us around. We are going on.

We need all of you. And you know what’s beautiful to me is to see all of these ministers of the Gospel. It’s a marvelous picture. Who is it that is supposed to articulate the longings and aspirations of the people more than the preacher? Somehow the preacher must have a kind of fire shut up in his bones. And whenever injustice is around he tell it. Somehow the preacher must be an Amos, and saith, “When God speaks who can but prophesy?” Again with Amos, “Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream.” Somehow the preacher must say with Jesus, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he hath anointed me,” and he’s anointed me to deal with the problems of the poor.”

And I want to commend the preachers, under the leadership of these noble men: James Lawson, one who has been in this struggle for many years; he’s been to jail for struggling; he’s been kicked out of Vanderbilt University for this struggle, but he’s still going on, fighting for the rights of his people. Reverend Ralph Jackson, Billy Kiles; I could just go right on down the list, but time will not permit.

But I want to thank all of them. And I want you to thank them, because so often, preachers aren’t concerned about anything but themselves. And I’m always happy to see a relevant ministry.

It’s all right to talk about “long white robes over yonder,” in all of its symbolism. But ultimately people want some suits and dresses and shoes to wear down here! It’s all right to talk about “streets flowing with milk and honey,” but God has commanded us to be concerned about the slums down here, and his children who can’t eat three square meals a day. It’s all right to talk about the new Jerusalem, but one day, God’s preacher must talk about the new New York, the new Atlanta, the new Philadelphia, the new Los Angeles, the new Memphis, Tennessee. This is what we have to do.

Now the other thing we’ll have to do is this: Always anchor our external direct action with the power of economic withdrawal. Now, we are poor people. Individually, we are poor when you compare us with white society in America. We are poor. Never stop and forget that collectively — that means all of us together — collectively we are richer than all the nations in the world, with the exception of nine. Did you ever think about that?

After you leave the United States, Soviet Russia, Great Britain, West Germany, France, and I could name the others, the American Negro collectively is richer than most nations of the world. We have an annual income of more than thirty billion dollars a year, which is more than all of the exports of the United States, and more than the national budget of Canada. Did you know that? That’s power right there, if we know how to pool it.

We don’t have to argue with anybody. We don’t have to curse and go around acting bad with our words. We don’t need any bricks and bottles. We don’t need any Molotov cocktails. We just need to go around to these stores, and to these massive industries in our country, and say, “God sent us by here, to say to you that you’re not treating his children right. And we’ve come by here to ask you to make the first item on your agenda fair treatment, where God’s children are concerned.

Now, if you are not prepared to do that, we do have an agenda that we must follow. And our agenda calls for withdrawing economic support from you.”

And so, as a result of this, we are asking you tonight, to go out and tell your neighbors not to buy Coca-Cola in Memphis. Go by and tell them not to buy Sealtest milk. Tell them not to buy — what is the other bread? — Wonder Bread. And what is the other bread company, Jesse? Tell them not to buy Hart’s bread. As Jesse Jackson has said, up to now, only the garbage men have been feeling pain; now we must kind of redistribute the pain.

We are choosing these companies because they haven’t been fair in their hiring policies; and we are choosing them because they can begin the process of saying they are going to support the needs and the rights of these men who are on strike. And then they can move on town — downtown and tell Mayor Loeb to do what is right.

But not only that, we’ve got to strengthen black institutions. I call upon you to take your money out of the banks downtown and deposit your money in Tri-State Bank. We want a “bank-in” movement in Memphis. Go by the savings and loan association. I’m not asking you something that we don’t do ourselves at SCLC. Judge Hooks and others will tell you that we have an account here in the savings and loan association from the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.

We are telling you to follow what we are doing. Put your money there. You have six or seven black insurance companies here in the city of Memphis. Take out your insurance there. We want to have an “insurance-in.”

Now these are some practical things that we can do. We begin the process of building a greater economic base. And at the same time, we are putting pressure where it really hurts. I ask you to follow through here.

Now, let me say as I move to my conclusion that we’ve got to give ourselves to this struggle until the end.

Nothing would be more tragic than to stop at this point in Memphis. We’ve got to see it through. And when we have our march, you need to be there. If it means leaving work, if it means leaving school — be there. Be concerned about your brother. You may not be on strike. But either we go up together, or we go down together.

Let us develop a kind of dangerous unselfishness. One day a man came to Jesus, and he wanted to raise some questions about some vital matters of life. At points he wanted to trick Jesus, and show him that he knew a little more than Jesus knew and throw him off base…. Now that question could have easily ended up in a philosophical and theological debate. But Jesus immediately pulled that question from mid-air, and placed it on a dangerous curve between Jerusalem and Jericho. And he talked about a certain man, who fell among thieves. You remember that a Levite and a priest passed by on the other side.

They didn’t stop to help him. And finally a man of another race came by. He got down from his beast, decided not to be compassionate by proxy. But he got down with him, administered first aid, and helped the man in need. Jesus ended up saying, this was the good man, this was the great man, because he had the capacity to project the “I” into the “thou,” and to be concerned about his brother.

Now you know, we use our imagination a great deal to try to determine why the priest and the Levite didn’t stop. At times we say they were busy going to a church meeting, an ecclesiastical gathering, and they had to get on down to Jerusalem so they wouldn’t be late for their meeting. At other times we would speculate that there was a religious law that “One who was engaged in religious ceremonials was not to touch a human body twenty-four hours before the ceremony.” And every now and then we begin to wonder whether maybe they were not going down to Jerusalem — or down to Jericho, rather to organize a “Jericho Road Improvement Association.”

That’s a possibility. Maybe they felt that it was better to deal with the problem from the causal root, rather than to get bogged down with an individual effect.

But I’m going to tell you what my imagination tells me. It’s possible that those men were afraid. You see, the Jericho road is a dangerous road. I remember when Mrs. King and I were first in Jerusalem. We rented a car and drove from Jerusalem down to Jericho. And as soon as we got on that road, I said to my wife, “I can see why Jesus used this as the setting for his parable.” It’s a winding, meandering road. It’s really conducive for ambushing. You start out in Jerusalem, which is about 1200 miles — or rather 1200 feet above sea level. And by the time you get down to Jericho, fifteen or twenty minutes later, you’re about 2200 feet below sea level. That’s a dangerous road. In the days of Jesus it came to be known as the “Bloody Pass.”

And you know, it’s possible that the priest and the Levite looked over that man on the ground and wondered if the robbers were still around. Or it’s possible that they felt that the man on the ground was merely faking. And he was acting like he had been robbed and hurt, in order to seize them over there, lure them there for quick and easy seizure. And so the first question that the priest asked — the first question that the Levite asked was, “If I stop to help this man, what will happen to me?” But then the Good Samaritan came by. And he reversed the question: “If I do not stop to help this man, what will happen to him?”

*see Luke 10

That’s the question before you tonight. Not, “If I stop to help the sanitation workers, what will happen to my job. Not, “If I stop to help the sanitation workers what will happen to all of the hours that I usually spend in my office every day and every week as a pastor?” The question is not, “If I stop to help this man in need, what will happen to me?” The question is, “If I do not stop to help the sanitation workers, what will happen to them?” That’s the question.

Let us rise up tonight with a greater readiness. Let us stand with a greater determination. And let us move on in these powerful days, these days of challenge to make America what it ought to be. We have an opportunity to make America a better nation. And I want to thank God, once more, for allowing me to be here with you. You know, several years ago, I was in New York City autographing the first book that I had written. And while sitting there autographing books, a demented black woman came up.

The only question I heard from her was, “Are you Martin Luther King?” And I was looking down writing, and I said, “Yes.” And the next minute I felt something beating on my chest. Before I knew it I had been stabbed by this demented woman. I was rushed to Harlem Hospital. It was a dark Saturday afternoon. And that blade had gone through, and the X-rays revealed that the tip of the blade was on the edge of my aorta, the main artery. And once that’s punctured, your drowned in your own blood — that’s the end of you.

It came out in the New York Times the next morning, that if I had merely sneezed, I would have died. Well, about four days later, they allowed me, after the operation, after my chest had been opened, and the blade had been taken out, to move around in the wheel chair in the hospital.

They allowed me to read some of the mail that came in, and from all over the states and the world, kind letters came in. I read a few, but one of them I will never forget. I had received one from the President and the Vice-President. I’ve forgotten what those telegrams said. I’d received a visit and a letter from the Governor of New York, but I’ve forgotten what that letter said. But there was another letter that came from a little girl, a young girl who was a student at the White Plains High School. And I looked at that letter, and I’ll never forget it. It said simply,

“Dear Dr. King, I am a ninth-grade student at the White Plains High School.”

And she said,

“While it should not matter, I would like to mention that I’m a white girl. I read in the paper of your misfortune, and of your suffering. And I read that if you had sneezed, you would have died. And I’m simply writing you to say that I’m so happy that you didn’t sneeze.”

And I want to say tonight — I want to say tonight that I too am happy that I didn’t sneeze. Because if I had sneezed, I wouldn’t have been around here in 1960, when students all over the South started sitting-in at lunch counters. And I knew that as they were sitting in, they were really standing up for the best in the American dream, and taking the whole nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the Founding Fathers in the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution.

If I had sneezed, I wouldn’t have been around here in 1961, when we decided to take a ride for freedom and ended segregation in inter-state travel.

If I had sneezed, I wouldn’t have been around here in 1962, when Negroes in Albany, Georgia, decided to straighten their backs up. And whenever men and women straighten their backs up, they are going somewhere, because a man can’t ride your back unless it is bent.

If I had sneezed — If I had sneezed I wouldn’t have been here in 1963, when the black people of Birmingham, Alabama, aroused the conscience of this nation, and brought into being the Civil Rights Bill.

If I had sneezed, I wouldn’t have had a chance later that year, in August, to try to tell America about a dream that I had had.

If I had sneezed, I wouldn’t have been down in Selma, Alabama, to see the great Movement there.

If I had sneezed, I wouldn’t have been in Memphis to see a community rally around those brothers and sisters who are suffering.

I’m so happy that I didn’t sneeze.

And they were telling me –. Now, it doesn’t matter, now. It really doesn’t matter what happens now. I left Atlanta this morning, and as we got started on the plane, there were six of us.

The pilot said over the public address system, “We are sorry for the delay, but we have Dr. Martin Luther King on the plane. And to be sure that all of the bags were checked, and to be sure that nothing would be wrong with on the plane, we had to check out everything carefully. And we’ve had the plane protected and guarded all night.”

And then I got into Memphis. And some began to say the threats, or talk about the threats that were out. What would happen to me from some of our sick white brothers?

Well, I don’t know what will happen now. We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it really doesn’t matter with me now, because I’ve been to the mountaintop. And I don’t mind.

Like anybody, I would like to live a long life. Longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we, as a people, will get to the promised land!

And so I’m happy, tonight.

I’m not worried about anything.

I’m not fearing any man.

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.

Martin Luther King, Jr.’s Nobel Peace Prize Lecture from Oslo, 11 Dec. 1964 (full audio)

Tribute

-Music

“We Shall Overcome” (“trying” to ) Play by Piano (October 28th 2010) , from youtube.com

Learned anything new? What else do you know that wasn’t mentioned about MLK Jr.? What are some ways “we” can keep his dream alive?

Good News Sociology
https://www.facebook.com/groups/139706352858524/

Deep Thought: “Hands Up or Down to get ID?”

THE KILLING OF PHILANDO CASTILE


“..Tylor S…10 hours ago
Comply and don’t die, I don’t even have a conceal carry permit and I know you should be on your toes when the police come up if you have one, even more so if you’re a black man, if you’re reaching for something in today’s day and age, you’re gonna get shot to shit by the police because they’re afraid for their lives.///Chinese officer… I thought it was a white guy according to the news?…

Cop Fatally Shoots Black Man, Leaves Victim’s Girlfriend To Record Tragic Aftermath 07/07/2016 02:09 am ET | huffingtonpost.com
“..Castile’s death at the hands of police comes just a day after local cops shot another black man, Alton Sterling, in circumstances that shocked the world. Sterling was selling CDs outside a store in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, on Tuesday when police, responding to a complaint about a man wielding a gun, tackled him in order to arrest him.

Someone yelled that Sterling had a gun and the police shot him at point-blank range while he was subdued on the ground. The shooting was captured in a graphic video that roiled the public’s conscience. The subsequent release of another video confirmed that Sterling was not have a gun in his hands at the time.

Many observers are expressing dismay at the regularity with which police kill unarmed black men in the United States…”
Philando Castile death: Aftermath of police shooting streamed live 7 July 2016 From the section US & Canada bbc.com

Philando Castile: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know
Published 1:32 am EDT, July 7, 2016 Updated 9:23 am EDT, July 8, 2016 heavy.com/
“..In her Facebook Live video, Lavish Reynolds said that Philando Castile was “licensed to carry” and was “trying to get out his ID” and “let the officer know he had a firearm, and he was reaching for his wallet, and the officer just shot him. … He just shot his arm off.”..

In an emotional press conference held Thursday, which you can view above, Reynolds gave a detailed account of the stop that led to Castile’s death, prompted by a “broken taillight, which wasn’t broken.” She described Castile as “the quietest, most laid-back person you would ever meet. He was loving. … Nothing within his body language said intimidation. Nothing within his body said ‘shoot me.’ Nothing within his body language said ‘kill me, I want to be dead.’ He did not do nothing but what the police officer asked of us, which was to put your hands in the air and get your license and registration.” She said they were returning from the grocery store when stopped, according to CNN.”..

Mangseth said the details were still being investigated. He told the Post that he hadn’t yet seen the Facebook video. At one point in the video, the officer can be heard saying, “I told him not to reach for it! I told him to get his head up!”

Comments:

jstanley01 says:
July 8, 2016 at 11:38 am

When you inform an officer that you are armed, you need to follow the officer’s instructions exactly. Not reach for your wallet when he is telling you to keep your hands where he can see them. How in the hell is the officer supposed to know what you are reaching for? A white would have gotten shot for the exact same thing I guarantee you.

Van Blam says:
July 8, 2016 at 12:29 pm

According to reports the officer asked to see his ID after Castile told him that he was armed and had a permit. If he was reaching for his ID to comply with the officer’s request, that cop is guilty of murder. I’m not saying the cop intentionally murdered him rather that he was jittery and overreacted. Do you really think that he would have reacted to a white guy the same way he did with Castile? Nope. I wouldn’t be surprised if this officer ends it all. He knows he’s in deep sh*t.

..
Read Mark Zuckerberg’s Response to the Video of Philando Castile’s Shooting Rishi Iyengar @Iyengarish July 7, 2016 time.com

Police group: Minn. governor ‘exploited what was already a horrible and tragic situation’

By T. Rees Shapiro, Lindsey Bever, Wesley Lowery and Michael E. Miller July 8 at 3:10 PM washingtonpost.com
“..ST. PAUL, Minn. — The morning after Minnesota’s governor said Philando Castile ended up dead during a traffic stop in part because he was black — and after five police officers were killed during a shooting attack in downtown Dallas — the head of a national police organization said law enforcement officers across the country are distraught, angry and anxious…”

Two Phony Excuses for Shooting Philando Castile-
Jeronimo Yanez’s defenders falsely portray Castile as a disobedient stoner.

Jacob Sullum|Jun. 22, 2017 8:30 am reason.com
“..oxicology tests found THC in Castile’s blood, but post-mortem levels are an unreliable indicator of impairment because THC is stored in body fat and re-enters the bloodstream after death. Even when blood is drawn from a living source, THC levels cannot be directly tied to impairment, partly because individual responses vary widely and regular users develop tolerance. It is therefore not clear whether Castile was under the influence of marijuana at the time of the shooting or, if so, how intoxicated he might have been.

Castile was disobedient. The question of Castile’s cannabis consumption is relevant only if you accept the defense argument that marijuana impaired his ability to follow Yanez’s instructions, as evidenced by his failure to do as he was told. But the dashcam video of the shooting does not support the claim that Castile was uncooperative. To the contrary, he interacted with Yanez calmly and politely, handed over his insurance card as instructed, and let the officer know he was carrying a concealed firearm (for which he had a permit). According to Reynolds, whose account on this point has always been consistent, Castile was reaching for his wallet so he could retrieve his driver’s license, which Yanez had also requested, when the officer became agitated.

Notably, Yanez never told Castile to stop moving, to keep his hands in plain view, or to put them on the dashboard. Instead he told Castile, “Don’t pull it out,” referring to the handgun. “I’m not pulling it out,” Castile assured Yanez. “He’s not pulling it out,” Reynolds reiterated. This is the point at which Yanez freaked out, screaming, “Don’t pull it out!” He immediately drew his pistol and fired seven rounds at Castile, who managed to say “I wasn’t reaching for it” before he died.

You can argue that Castile should have realized his movements were making Yanez nervous or that he should have proactively put his hands on the dashboard, even though Yanez had not told him to do so. But it is not accurate to say that Castile disobeyed Yanez’s commands. All the evidence suggests that Castile thought he was doing what Yanez wanted by retrieving his driver’s license. It was Yanez who made mistaken assumptions about Castile (viewing him as a robbery suspect based on no real evidence, viewing him as a deadly threat after Castile disclosed that he had a gun), failed to communicate his wishes, failed to take routine precautions (such as instructing Castile to put his hands on the dashboard or stepping back from the car window), and flew into a panic within seconds.

It is true that Castile might still be alive had he acted differently. If he had never mentioned the gun, for example, he in all likelihood would have survived the encounter. But even though Minnesotans with concealed-carry permits are not legally required to tell police about their guns when they are pulled over, cops prefer that they do so to avoid scary surprises, and experts generally recommend disclosure. Castile was doing what he thought he was supposed to do when he said, “Sir, I have to tell you that I do have a firearm on me.” It turned out to be a fatal mistake only because of Yanez’s unprofessional, irrational reaction…”

Officer Side of the Story

Officer’s Attorney: ‘He Is Deeply Saddened for The Family and Loved Ones of Philando Castile Nate Leding
Updated: 07/09/2016 10:01 AM kstp.com
“…“He is deeply saddened for the family and loved ones of Philando Castile. Tragically, the use of force became necessary in reacting to the actions of Mr. Castile. This heartbreaking incident had nothing to do with race. It had to do with the presence of a gun.”

According to a BCA release, Officer Yanez and Officer Joseph Kauser conducted a traffic stop about 9:17 p.m. Wednesday near the intersection of Larpenteur Avenue West and Fry Street in Falcon Heights. Castile, of St. Paul, was the driver of the vehicle involved in the stop.

Both officers have been with the St. Anthony Police Department for four years.

Both are on standard administrative leave.

Yanez approached the vehicle from the driver’s side as Kauser approached from the passenger side. At one point during the exchange, Yanez fired his weapon, striking Castile multiple times, according to the BCA.

Yanez radioed for an ambulance as members of the Roseville Police Department and the St. Paul Fire Department administered medical aid…”
Who Is Jeronimo Yanez? The Cop Who Shot Philando Castile Has Been Identified Alana Romaina day ago (7.9.16) romper.com
“…While filming, Reynolds was told by Yanez, who sounded agitated, to keep her hands in the air. She replied, “I will, sir, no worries. I will,” and Yanez could then be heard yelling, “I told him not to reach for it. I told him to get his hand off it.”

Although Yanez’s face couldn’t be seen on the video, the Minnesota Department of Public Safety Bureau of Criminal Apprehension (BCA) released his and Kauser’s name to the public Friday, according to The Daily Mail. Twenty-eight-year-old Yanez has been an officer with the St. Anthony Police Department for the past four years, but is now on paid administrative leave pending an investigation. The Department has not responded to Romper’s request for comment regarding the shooting.

Details about Yanez are still scarce, although The Daily Mail noted that now-deleted accounts linked to Ynez on wedding site The Knot and its related pregnancy site The Bump suggested he was married to his wife in November 2014, and that they welcomed a child together on August 4, 2015. Yanez appears to have no prior criminal record, other than a few minor traffic violations. Castile’s death is reportedly the first officer-related shooting in the St. Anthony Police Department in 30 years….”
Officer Jeronimo Yanez, an ‘all-around good guy,’ fired shots that killed Castile
By Mara Gottfried / St. Paul Pioneer Press on Jul 8, 2016 at 8:26 p.m inforum.com
“…The city’s annual report also notes Yanez’s involvement in volunteering, including giving a tour of the police station to a local Cub Scout troop and volunteering at St. Paul’s Cinco de Mayo celebration….

John Lozoya, the founder of the Minnesota Chapter of the National Latino Peace Officers Association, said Yanez has been an active volunteer through that organization as well.

He referred to him as “passionate” and “good-natured” and asked that the public be patient as the investigation into Castile’s death continues.

“It’s very easy to jump to conclusions, and it’s almost human nature sometimes to do that. We are all guilty of it,” said Lozoya, who is also a member of law enforcement. “We just ask that people wait until everything comes out on the table before judgment is passed.”..”

PHILANDRO CASTILE & GIRLFRIEND DISCREDITED? , from youtube.com

The Latest: Expert believes motorist was high when shot Published June 08, 2017 Associated Press foxnews.com
“..3 p.m.

A toxicology expert says he believes a black motorist who was shot to death during a traffic stop in Minnesota was under the influence of marijuana.

Glenn Hardin, a former supervisor of Minnesota’s state toxicology lab, testified Thursday as a witness for Officer Jeronimo Yanez. Yanez is charged with manslaughter in the death of 32-year-old Philando Castile last July in a St. Paul suburb.

Defense attorneys have argued Castile was stoned at the time of the shooting, which happened in the seconds after he informed Yanez that he was carrying a gun. Hardin said he examined autopsy reports showing Castile’s blood levels of THC, the substance in marijuana that gives a high.

Prosecutor Jeff Paulsen attacked Hardin’s testimony by citing studies he said show there’s no way to determine marijuana intoxication from blood samples…”

*see Neutral Perspective: Marijuana (“weed”) is “good” and “bad” for you? goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

Music

Boosie BadAzz – Hands Up (Official Video)
from youtube.com

Others

Raw Video: Dash Cam Video of the Shooting
“Published on Sep 24, 2014

Video released by the South Carolina Highway Patrol of an encounter between a trooper and a man in Columbia, SC on Sept. 24, 2014…”

Fatal shootings by on-duty police officers: An analysis | The … washingtonpost.com
Cop Shoots Man Reaching For Drivers License [Video] , from youtube.com

This was my reply to the blog up above..

“goodnewseverybodycom says:
July 8, 2016 at 3:26 pm

Thoughts & Prayers for the family 😦 I’ve learned to not be quick to “judge”, so we need to be patient and hear both sides of the story. Each “police shooting” is an individual case. We can’t judge all law enforcement by this one action. Unfortunately, it’s hard not to with all these cases (epidemic) around the country. What is the solution? Praying and wanting to act too to make a “positive” change!
..”

How Castile Told Officer About Gun Was Critical in Final Moments
By amy forliti and kyle potter, associated press

·MINNEAPOLIS — Jul 14, 2016, 7:57 PM ET abcnews.go.com
‘…St. Anthony police training documents outline how an officer should respond to traffic stops. According to the documents, if an officer believes it’s a high-risk stop — as one involving an armed robbery suspect would likely be — he should have the driver and others exit the car before approaching the vehicle, while officers take cover and draw their weapons.
..”

Watching the video got me very frustrated and also sad. There are a lot of mix emotions out there. Just turn it to “positive” as I feel “good” can come out of “bad”. Feel free to share your thoughts, suggestions, prayers, etc..

Good News St. Paul
https://www.facebook.com/groups/1407048736201740/

Others:

Officer Betty Shelby Charged with Felony Manslaughter in Shooting Death of Terence Crutcher
September 22, 2016 lovebscott.com
“..In dashcam and helicopter video released by police, Terence Crutcher appears to have his hands up moments before he is shot by Shelby. Shelby’s attorney, Scott Wood, maintains that Terence refused to follow more than two dozen commands and that he reached into the open window of the car before Shelby perceived a threat and shot him.

The Crutcher family’s attorneys Benjamin L. Crump and Damario Solomon-Simmons said the window was up, evidenced by the blood spattered on it when he was shot…”
BREAKING: Truth About Terence Crutcher Comes Out… It’s BAD for the Media conservativetribune.com
“…Now, you watch that video and listen to the commentary. Did it look to you like Crutcher was following commands? You can hear an officer say that Crutcher was “still walking” and that he wasn’t “following commands.” Another officer said that he “could be on something.”

Take a look at these pictures Bearing Arms grabbed from the video that disprove the media’s false narrative:…

As you can see, Crutcher was not shot with his hands up. He was clearly flouting officer orders, and at the time of his shooting he lowered his right hand toward his waistband.

Oh, and by the way, the media have run with the story that Crutcher was unarmed, but didn’t seem too interested in the PCP that was found in his car and that the Tulsa Police Department officer who shot Crutcher, Betty Shelby, was trained to spot PCP abuse, according to Bearing Arms.

In any of these cases, the legal system should be given time to do its job, but the media have decided to run false narratives that fit their agenda without all the facts and, in some cases, despite the facts.

As you can see above, there’s clearly more to the story….”

Solution: Improve Law Enforcement’s Credibility?

Hypocrites: Military Uses of Biological-Chemical Weapons around the World

Other Countries

World War One Chemical Warfare


“..Uploaded on May 26, 2011

History Channel Modern Marvel: WWI Chemical Warfar..”
Comments:
“fritz haber was indeed a jew , ironicly enough he invented zyklone A the later renewed to zyklone B wich was used to murder in the gaschambers ..”
Fritz Haber, chemheritage.org
“…Haber was from a well-to-do German-Jewish family involved in various manufacturing enterprises. He studied at several German universities, earning a doctorate in organic chemistry in 1891. After a few years of moving from job to job, he settled into the Department of Chemical and Fuel Technology at the Polytechnic in Karlsruhe, Germany, where he mastered the new subject of physical chemistry. His research in physical chemistry eventually led to the Haber-Bosch process. In 1911 he was invited to become director of the Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry at the new Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft in Berlin, where academic scientists, government, and industry cooperated to promote original research.

The Haber-Bosch process is generally credited with keeping Germany supplied with fertilizers and munitions during World War I, after the British naval blockade cut off supplies of nitrates from Chile. During the war Haber threw his energies and those of his institute into further support for the German side. He developed a new weapon—poison gas, the first example of which was chlorine gas—and supervised its initial deployment on the Western Front at Ypres, Belgium, in 1915. His promotion of this frightening weapon precipitated the suicide of his wife, who was herself a chemist, and many others condemned him for his wartime role. There was great consternation when he was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for 1918 for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements.

After World War I, Haber was remarkably successful in building up his institute, but in 1933 the anti-Jewish decrees of the Nazi regime made his position untenable. He retired a broken man, although at the time of his death he was on his way to investigate a possible senior research position at Rehovot in Palestine (now Israel)…”

Iraq officials say Islamic State chemical attacks kill child, wound 600
Published March 12, 2016 Associated Press foxnews.com
“..BAGHDAD – Iraqi officials say the Islamic State group has launched two chemical attacks, killing a three-year-old girl and wounding some 600 people near the northern city of Kirkuk.

Security and hospital officials say the latest attack took place early Saturday in the small town of Taza, which was struck by a barrage of rockets carrying chemicals three days earlier.

Helmi Hamdi, a nurse at the Taza hospital, says the wounded are suffering from infected burns, suffocation and dehydration. Eight people were transferred to Baghdad for treatment.

The security officials spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to brief reporters.

U.S. and Iraqi officials said U.S. special forces captured the head of the IS unit trying to develop chemical weapons in a raid last month in northern Iraq…”

The US Wants to Blame Someone For Syria’s Chemical Weapons Attacks By Samuel Oakford
July 9, 2015 | 6:40 pm news.vice.com


Isis ‘manufacturing and using chemical weapons’ in Iraq and Syria, US official claims Kurdish fighters have reported numerous chemical attacks in both countries, possibly using mustard agents
Lizzie Dearden @lizziedearden Friday 11 September 2015 independent.co.uk

U.S. & Allies

A very brief history of the U.S. use of chemical weapons worldbulletin.net
“…After the Baath regime in Syria had allegedly used chemical weapons against the civilian population in the suburbs of Damascus, the US decision makers accused the Syrian government of breaking an international agreement reached at the end of WW I. According to this agreement, chemical weapons are not permitted to be employed in any sort of military conflict. From the way the US leadership speaks, someone who is not familiar with world affairs may think that chemical weapons have not been used in wars from the end of WW I until the attacks of the Baath regime on August 21, 2013. Contrary to the image the US political leadership has been presenting recently, from WW II to today, the US has the lead in the world in the development, production and deployment of chemical weapons on both military forces and civilian populations at home and across the world…”
10 Chemical Weapons Attacks Washington Doesn’t Want You to Talk About
Wesley Messamore’s avatar image By Wesley Messamore September 04, 2013 mic.com
“…Washington doesn’t merely lack the legal authority for a military intervention in Syria. It lacks the moral authority. We’re talking about a government with a history of using chemical weapons against innocent people far more prolific and deadly than the mere accusations Assad faces from a trigger-happy Western military-industrial complex, bent on stifling further investigation before striking.

Here is a list of 10 chemical weapons attacks carried out by the U.S. government or its allies against civilians.
1. The U.S. Military Dumped 20 Million Gallons of Chemicals on Vietnam from 1962 – 1971

During the Vietnam War, the U.S. military sprayed 20 million gallons of chemicals, including the very toxic Agent Orange, on the forests and farmlands of Vietnam and neighboring countries, deliberately destroying food supplies, shattering the jungle ecology, and ravaging the lives of hundreds of thousands of innocent people. Vietnam estimates that as a result of the decade-long chemical attack, 400,000 people were killed or maimed, 500,000 babies have been born with birth defects, and 2 million have suffered from cancer or other illnesses. In 2012, the Red Cross estimated that one million people in Vietnam have disabilities or health problems related to Agent Orange.
2. Israel Attacked Palestinian Civilians with White Phosphorus in 2008 – 2009

White phosphorus is a horrific incendiary chemical weapon that melts human flesh right down to the bone.

In 2009, multiple human rights groups, including Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, and International Red Cross reported that the Israeli government was attacking civilians in their own country with chemical weapons. An Amnesty International team claimed to find “indisputable evidence of the widespread use of white phosphorus” as a weapon in densely-populated civilian areas. The Israeli military denied the allegations at first, but eventually admitted they were true.

After the string of allegations by these NGOs, the Israeli military even hit a UN headquarters(!) in Gaza with a chemical attack. How do you think all this evidence compares to the case against Syria? Why didn’t Obama try to bomb Israel?
3. Washington Attacked Iraqi Civilians with White Phosphorus in 2004

In 2004, journalists embedded with the U.S. military in Iraq began reporting the use of white phosphorus in Fallujah against Iraqi insurgents. First the military lied and said that it was only using white phosphorus to create smokescreens or illuminate targets. Then it admitted to using the volatile chemical as an incendiary weapon. At the time, Italian television broadcaster RAI aired a documentary entitled, “Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre,” including grim video footage and photographs, as well as eyewitness interviews with Fallujah residents and U.S. soldiers revealing how the U.S. government indiscriminately rained white chemical fire down on the Iraqi city and melted women and children to death.
4. The CIA Helped Saddam Hussein Massacre Iranians and Kurds with Chemical Weapons in 1988

CIA records now prove that Washington knew Saddam Hussein was using chemical weapons (including sarin, nerve gas, and mustard gas) in the Iran-Iraq War, yet continued to pour intelligence into the hands of the Iraqi military, informing Hussein of Iranian troop movements while knowing that he would be using the information to launch chemical attacks. At one point in early 1988, Washington warned Hussein of an Iranian troop movement that would have ended the war in a decisive defeat for the Iraqi government. By March an emboldened Hussein with new friends in Washington struck a Kurdish village occupied by Iranian troops with multiple chemical agents, killing as many as 5,000 people and injuring as many as 10,000 more, most of them civilians. Thousands more died in the following years from complications, diseases, and birth defects.
5. The Army Tested Chemicals on Residents of Poor, Black St. Louis Neighborhoods in The 1950s

In the early 1950s, the Army set up motorized blowers on top of residential high-rises in low-income, mostly black St. Louis neighborhoods, including areas where as much as 70% of the residents were children under 12. The government told residents that it was experimenting with a smokescreen to protect the city from Russian attacks, but it was actually pumping the air full of hundreds of pounds of finely powdered zinc cadmium sulfide. The government admits that there was a second ingredient in the chemical powder, but whether or not that ingredient was radioactive remains classified. Of course it does. Since the tests, an alarming number of the area’s residents have developed cancer. In 1955, Doris Spates was born in one of the buildings the Army used to fill the air with chemicals from 1953 – 1954. Her father died inexplicably that same year, she has seen four siblings die from cancer, and Doris herself is a survivor of cervical cancer.
6. Police Fired Tear Gas at Occupy Protesters in 2011

The savage violence of the police against Occupy protesters in 2011 was well documented, and included the use of tear gas and other chemical irritants. Tear gas is prohibited for use against enemy soldiers in battle by the Chemical Weapons Convention. Can’t police give civilian protesters in Oakland, California the same courtesy and protection that international law requires for enemy soldiers on a battlefield?
7. The FBI Attacked Men, Women, and Children With Tear Gas in Waco in 1993

At the infamous Waco siege of a peaceful community of Seventh Day Adventists, the FBI pumped tear gas into buildings knowing that women, children, and babies were inside. The tear gas was highly flammable and ignited, engulfing the buildings in flames and killing 49 men and women, and 27 children, including babies and toddlers. Remember, attacking an armed enemy soldier on a battlefield with tear gas is a war crime. What kind of crime is attacking a baby with tear gas?
8. The U.S. Military Littered Iraq with Toxic Depleted Uranium in 2003

In Iraq, the U.S. military has littered the environment with thousands of tons of munitions made from depleted uranium, a toxic and radioactive nuclear waste product. As a result, more than half of babies born in Fallujah from 2007 – 2010 were born with birth defects. Some of these defects have never been seen before outside of textbooks with photos of babies born near nuclear tests in the Pacific. Cancer and infant mortality have also seen a dramatic rise in Iraq. According to Christopher Busby, the Scientific Secretary of the European Committee on Radiation Risk, “These are weapons which have absolutely destroyed the genetic integrity of the population of Iraq.” After authoring two of four reports published in 2012 on the health crisis in Iraq, Busby described Fallujah as having, “the highest rate of genetic damage in any population ever studied.”
9. The U.S. Military Killed Hundreds of Thousands of Japanese Civilians with Napalm from 1944 – 1945

Napalm is a sticky and highly flammable gel which has been used as a weapon of terror by the U.S. military. In 1980, the UN declared the use of napalm on swaths of civilian population a war crime. That’s exactly what the U.S. military did in World War II, dropping enough napalm in one bombing raid on Tokyo to burn 100,000 people to death, injure a million more, and leave a million without homes in the single deadliest air raid of World War II.
10. The U.S. Government Dropped Nuclear Bombs on Two Japanese Cities in 1945

Although nuclear bombs may not be considered chemical weapons, I believe we can agree they belong to the same category. They certainly disperse an awful lot of deadly radioactive chemicals. They are every bit as horrifying as chemical weapons if not more, and by their very nature, suitable for only one purpose: wiping out an entire city full of civilians. It seems odd that the only regime to ever use one of these weapons of terror on other human beings has busied itself with the pretense of keeping the world safe from dangerous weapons in the hands of dangerous governments…”

America’s Secret War: Germs & Biological Weapons – Spies, Scientists (2001)
The Film Archives


“..The United States biological weapons program officially began in spring 1943 on orders from U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt. Research continued following World War II as the U.S. built up a large stockpile of biological agents and weapons. Over the course of its 27 year history, the program weaponized and stockpiled the following seven bio-agents (and pursued basic research on many more): Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) Francisella tularensis (tularemia) Brucella spp (brucellosis) Coxiella burnetii (Q-fever) Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) Botulinum toxin (botulism) Staphylococcal enterotoxin B

Throughout its history, the U.S. bioweapons program was secret. It became controversial when it was later revealed that laboratory and field testing (some of the latter using simulants on non-consenting individuals) had been common. The official policy of the United States was first to deter the use of bio-weapons against U.S. forces and secondarily to retaliate if deterrence failed. There exists no evidence that the U.S. ever used biological agents against an enemy in the field (see below for alleged uses).

In 1969, President Richard Nixon ended all offensive (i.e., non-defensive) aspects of the U.S. bio-weapons program. In 1975 the U.S. ratified both the 1925 Geneva Protocol and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC)—international treaties outlawing biological warfare. Recent U.S. biodefense programs, however, have raised concerns that the U.S. may be pursuing research that is outlawed by the BWC…”

Related:

A Short History of Bio-Chemical Weapons by Zoltan Grossman September 2, 2013 counterpunch.org
“..1962: Chemical weapons loaded on U.S. planes during Cuban missile crisis.”..

“We Used Chemical Weapons in Vietnam”: Oliver Stone and Peter Kuznick Explain How Telling the Untold History Can Change the World for the Better
Sunday, 06 October 2013 11:22 By Satoko Oka Norimatsu and Narusawa Muneo, The Asia-Pacific Journal | Interview truth-out.org

Why the U.S. military exposed minority soldiers to toxic mustard gas
June 22, 2015 at 6:20 PM EST pbs.org
“..The U.S. government conducted experiments with mustard gas and other chemicals on some U.S. troops at the time. That chapter of history was first revealed in the early ’90s. Now a new investigation by NPR finds the military used race-based experiments as part of those tests. African-American men, shown here in protective gear, as well as Japanese-American and Puerto Rican soldiers, were singled out.

These pictures show the forearms of men exposed to mustard gas and other agents. Some, like Rollins Edwards, are living with the effects decades later, including injuries to their skin.

Caitlin Dickerson led NPR’s investigation. And Susan Smith is a professor of history at the University of Alberta, Canada. She has studied and written extensively about this…”

Own People

You Won’t Believe What They Admitted on the News in 1971…

Truthstream Media
“Published on May 31, 2017

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Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.

*vaccinations were found to have caused cancer in soldiers in 1962 and didn’t know about it until 3 years later in 1965.
*see Neutral Perspective: Vaccinations are safe and NOT? goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com

Good News Multicultural
https://www.facebook.com/groups/116519378557585/

Thoughts, suggestions (e.g. for peace), feedback, etc..?

Good News Chemistry
https://www.facebook.com/groups/268704499946377/

Contributions by: African Americans & Others

-History

Black History Facts history.com
“..Black History Month honors the contributions of African Americans to United States history. Did you know that Madam CJ Walker was America’s first self-made woman to become a millionaire or that George Washington Carver was able to derive nearly 300 products from peanuts? Get the story of the creation of the NAACP, famous firsts in African American history and other black history facts…”
African Americans recognized for their contributions to society
Judie Perkowski The Daily Jeffersonian Published: February 1, 2012 1:00 PM daily-jeff.com
“…Woodson was appalled to learn that accomplishments by black people were generally ignored in American history, and when it was mentioned it was almost always in a demeaning manner that reflected their inferior social status. Blacks have been in America as far back as colonial times, but it wasn’t until the 20th century that they gained a respectable presence in history books, thanks to Woodson’s initiative.

Determined to educate the masses on the black culture, their historic struggle, accomplishments and contributions, he took on the challenge of writing black Americans into the nation’s history. He founded the Association of Study of Negro Life (now called the Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History) in 1915, and a year later The Journal of Negro History. ..”

African-American History – African Contributions To US History L904


“To order a copy of this program visit http://www.tmwmedia.com/productlistin…

African-American History – African Contributions To US History Discover the far-reaching influence of Africans throughout United States history. Find out how Africans influenced westward expansion, discover why Africans were enslaved and examine their dynamic struggle for freedom. This program explores African-American involvement in government, business, education, labor, law, the arts and science and their role in the Civil War. Learn about African-Americans great contribution to U.S. education, government, arts, science and much more…”

-Science

Contributions of African Americans To American Society: Black Inventors, cyberlearning-world.com

Masters Of Invention – A Documentary on The History of Black Inventions.


“Though most people can identify inventors Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell, they may never have heard of Lewis Latimer or Granville T. Woods, Edison’s and Bell’s equally brilliant African-American competitors. Actor Glynn Turman introduces black men and women whose inventions have contributed to society from the time of slavery to today.

Here are Benjamin Banneker, the multi-talented inventor, author and philosopher of the 1700’s, and Norbert Rilleaux, inventor of a sugar refining process still used today, a man so constrained by race laws that he left the U.S. forever. The program also recognizes Dr. George Washington Carver, known as the “Savior of the South,” Garrett Morgan, inventor of the traffic signal, Dr. Patricia Bath, inventor of the laserphaco probe and a modern spokeswoman for African-American achievement, and many more. Take a fascinating look at history as seen and made by African-Americans whose contributions have been ignored for far too long…”

There are just a few of the contributions I found online, but I’m sure there are many others out there that I missed. I’ll try to add more over time. Till then, what other contributions that wasn’t mentioned above that you would like to share (link/video/etc..)?

Good News Africa
https://www.facebook.com/groups/502920939776893/