Top 10 Largest Oil Spills In History


“..Published on Nov 16, 2014

Welcome to Top10Archive. From Fergana Valley, to the Amoco Cadiz Incident, in this video we will look at the top 10 largest oil spills in recorded history. In all fairness, we have omitted the Kuwait oil fires and oil lakes of 1991, as they were intentional oil spills.

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10. Amoco Cadiz Oil Tankers – 1.6 to 1.7 Million Barrels
9. The Castillo De Bellver – 1.85 Million Barrels
8. ABT Summer – 1.8 to 1.9 Million Barrels
7. Iran-Iraq War – 1.9 Million Barrels
6. Fergana Valley – 2+ Million Barrels
5. The Atlantic Empress – 2.1 to 2.4 Million Barrels
4. Ixtoc – 3+ Million Barrels
3. BP Oil Spill – 4.7 to 4.9 Million Barrels

Deepwater Horizon Documentary – The Largest Oil Spill In American History [HD]


“Published on Feb 4, 2016

Deepwater Horizon Documentary The Largest Oil Spill In American History Oil Spill Documentary The Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill BP oil spill BP oil disaster Macondo blowout

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also referred to as the BP oil spill, the BP oil disaster, the Gulf of Mexico oil spill, and the Macondo blowout) began on 20 April 2010 in the Gulf of Mexico on the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Following the explosion and sinking of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig, a sea-floor oil gusher flowed for 87 days, until it was capped on 15 July 2010. Eleven people went missing and were never found and it is considered the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry, an estimated 8% to 31% larger in volume than the previously largest, the Ixtoc I oil spill. The US Government estimated the total discharge at 4.9 million barrels (210 million US gal; 780,000 m3). After several failed efforts to contain the flow, the well was declared sealed on 19 September 2010. Reports in early 2012 indicated the well site was still leaking.
A massive response ensued to protect beaches, wetlands and estuaries from the spreading oil utilizing skimmer ships, floating booms, controlled burns and 1.84 million US gallons (7,000 m3) of Corexit oil dispersant. Due to the months-long spill, along with adverse effects from the response and cleanup activities, extensive damage to marine and wildlife habitats and fishing and tourism industries was reported. In Louisiana, 4.6 million pounds of oily material was removed from the beaches in 2013, over double the amount collected in 2012. Oil cleanup crews worked four days a week on 55 miles of Louisiana shoreline throughout 2013. Oil continued to be found as far from the Macondo site as the waters off the Florida Panhandle and Tampa Bay, where scientists said the oil and dispersant mixture is embedded in the sand. In 2013 it was reported that dolphins and other marine life continued to die in record numbers with infant dolphins dying at six times the normal rate. One study released in 2014 reported that tuna and amberjack that were exposed to oil from the spill developed deformities of the heart and other organs that would be expected to be fatal or at least life-shortening and another study found that cardiotoxicity might have been widespread in animal life exposed to the spill.
Numerous investigations explored the causes of the explosion and record-setting spill. Notably, the U.S. government’s September 2011 report pointed to defective cement on the well, faulting mostly BP, but also rig operator Transocean and contractor Halliburton. Earlier in 2011, a White House commission likewise blamed BP and its partners for a series of cost-cutting decisions and an insufficient safety system, but also concluded that the spill resulted from “systemic” root causes and “absent significant reform in both industry practices and government policies, might well recur”.
In November 2012, BP and the United States Department of Justice settled federal criminal charges with BP pleading guilty to 11 counts of manslaughter, two misdemeanors, and a felony count of lying to Congress. BP also agreed to four years of government monitoring of its safety practices and ethics, and the Environmental Protection Agency announced that BP would be temporarily banned from new contracts with the US government. BP and the Department of Justice agreed to a record-setting $4.525 billion in fines and other payments. As of February 2013, criminal and civil settlements and payments to a trust fund had cost the company $42.2 billion.
In September 2014, a U.S. District Court judge ruled that BP was primarily responsible for the oil spill because of its gross negligence and reckless conduct.
In July 2015, BP agreed to pay $18.7 billion in fines, the largest corporate settlement in U.S. history.”

2. The Gulf War Oil Spill – 8 Million Barrels
1. The Midway-Sunset Oil Field – Lakeview Gusher – 9 Million Barrels..”

Pipelines

Native American Prophecy + Enbridge Oil Spill History


“Published on May 27, 2012

A History of Enbridge Oil Pipeline Spills –
http://www.seankheraj.com/?p=1176 – FACTBOX-Enbridge has history of US pipeline spills:
“Enbridge Inc. (ENB.TO) ruptured in southern Michigan on Monday, spilling between 800,000 and 1 million gallons (19,047 to 23,809 barrels) of crude into a creek feeding the Kalamazoo River, which flows into Lake Michigan.
November, 2007: Two workers are killed after an Enbridge-operated pipeline catches fire in Northern Minnesota. The same line had recently been repaired. Following the incident, which resulted in a pipeline closure, up to 20 percent of U.S. crude imports were temporarily halted. Enbridge was fined for having allowed pressure on the pipeline to exceed recommended limits”
http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/0…

Pollution charges laid in 2007 Burnaby oil pipeline rupture
http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/ne…

Companies plead guilty in 2007 pipeline rupture
http://www.burnabynow.com/news/Compan…

Burnaby oil spill turns into crude geyser, what a scene!
http://chineseinvancouver.blogspot.ca…

Leaking pipeline reopens, but industry concerns remain
http://www.cnn.com/2010/US/09/17/enbr…

oil spill in Abbotsford: Timely reminder of pipeline expansion dangers
http://wildernesscommittee.org/press_…

Piping tar sands oil through Ontario protested
National Energy Boards hearing on Enbridge pipeline reversal shutdown
http://toronto.mediacoop.ca/story/pip…

NO TANKERS ON B.C. COAST at the Art Gallery, 26 March, 2012

First Nations Song

Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill pic FROM http://gulfofmexicooilspillblog.com/

MP fears B.C. pipeline could force people from homes http://www.ctvbc.ctv.ca/servlet/an/lo…
aND ctvglobalnothings, don’t even try to hit me with an infringement copyright BS again!”

AMERICAS

NORTH

-USA

-History

30 Years of Oil and Gas Pipeline Accidents, Mapped George Joseph @georgejoseph94 Nov 30, 2016 citylab.com
The sheer number of incidents involving America’s fossil fuel infrastructure suggests environmental concerns should go beyond Standing Rock.

“…

The 1,172 mile Dakota Access Pipeline, stretching from North Dakota to Illinois, would carry 470,000 barrels of crude oil a day if completed. But its future is still uncertain. Last week, the Army Corps of Engineers announced plans to close the Standing Rock Sioux camp by Dec. 5, but later claimed it had “no plans for forcible removal” and “is seeking a peaceful and orderly transition to a safer location,” after public backlash. In recent weeks, police have used increasingly aggressive means to confront protesters, including water cannons, tear-gas grenades, and sound weapons. In response, thousands of veterans have pledged to travel to Standing Rock next week to serve as human shields for the protesters, who call themselves “water protectors.”

Regardless of what happens at Standing Rock, Zizi says he expects deadly pipeline accidents will continue to flare up nationwide. “I live in Richmond, California and experienced the 2012 Chevron refinery explosion,” says Zizi. “That was scary, living six blocks away and seeing the black smoke covering the sun. They said there’s nothing wrong with this, just stay in your house. But this is contaminating our land, our soil, our air, our water. Once things are contaminated, it is hard to go back.”..”
Federal data: As oil production soars, so do pipeline leaks By Tribune wire reportsContact Reporter May 22nd 2015 chicagotribune.com
“The oil pipeline leak that fouled a stretch of California coastline this week reflects a troubling trend in the nation’s infrastructure: As U.S. oil production has soared, so has the number of pipeline accidents.

Since 2009, the annual number of significant accidents on oil and petroleum pipelines has shot up by almost 60 percent, roughly matching the rise in U.S. crude oil production, according an analysis of federal data by The Associated Press.

Nearly two-thirds of the leaks during that time have been linked to corrosion or material, welding and equipment failures, problems often associated with older pipelines, although they also can occur in newer ones, too. Other leaks were blamed on natural disasters or human error, such as a backhoe striking a pipeline.

Industry officials and federal regulators say they have adequate means of gauging the safety of pipelines, but the aging infrastructure is a source of lingering concern for outside experts….

With new drilling techniques such as hydraulic fracturing, the U.S. is in a period of sustained growth in oil production. New frontiers, such as parts of North Dakota, Oklahoma, Texas and Pennsylvania, have lifted domestic output to near historic highs.

The federal pipeline safety agency recently issued guidance — though not a rule — that lays out steps pipeline operators should take to evaluate the risks of aging pipelines.

After previous pipeline spills, federal safety regulators have considered requiring greater use of valves that can automatically seal off breached lines. Also proposed are better leak-detection systems and an expanded definition of areas that are considered “high-consequence” during a pipeline break, such as heavily populated or environmentally sensitive locations….”

=>Colorado

178 barrels of oil spill into Colorado’s only designated wild and scenic river Published time: 21 Jun, 2014 10:03 rt.com
“..A 7,500-gallon storage tank of crude oil has completely drained into the scenic Cache La Poudre, Colorado’s only designated National Wild and Scenic River, southeast of Fort Collins…”
Suncor refinery accident released 75,600 pounds of sulfur dioxide, 150 times daily limit
Suncor admits sulfur dioxide release was 150 times higher than limits but says there were no health risks By BRUCE FINLEY bfinley@denverpost.com PUBLISHED: October 28, 2016 at 3:58 pm | UPDATED: October 31, 2016 at 1:07 pm .denverpost.com
“…The Suncor oil refinery upwind of Denver that recently belched pumpkin-colored gas and dust into the sky, worrying residents and prompting highway closures, released far more sulfur dioxide than previously known — 75,600 pounds, 150 times beyond a 24-hour limit that triggers an investigation, according to a company letter obtained Friday.

Suncor spokeswoman Lisha Burnett told reporters shortly after the Oct. 14 event that no sulfur dioxide had been detected near the refinery, but company officials later acknowledged the sulfur dioxide release had exceeded the daily limit of 500 pounds. The company and state officials say the release did not pose any health risks…”
BP pipeline ruptures into CO river By Marlee Kokotovic – December 27, 2016 | News Report nationofchange.org
The county where this spill took place has experienced 19 reported spills in 2016, 12 of those incidents were BP.
“…Last week, a BP pipeline ruptured in Colorado for “unknown” reasons, spilling coal-bed methane-contaminated wastewater into the river. Upon the discovery of the spill, an earthen dam was constructed to prevent a majority of the toxic chemicals from traveling further downstream. So far, we know the contaminated water has traveled at least 2,300 feet along the tributary bed…”
BP Pipeline Ruptures in Colorado, Spills Into Sauls Creek
by Jonathan Romeo / The Durango Herald Thursday, December 22nd, 2016 earthfirstjournal.org
“..As of Dec. 19, there have been 19 reported spills in La Plata County in 2016 accounting for approximately 350 barrels of spilled substances, mostly produced water.

BP has accounted for 12 of those incidents, spilling about 165 barrels, according to COGCC data.

Two spills (including this recent one) did not have estimates for amounts leaked.

..”

=>Maryland

America’s aging pipelines
Newsroom cnn.com
“A CNN investigation into the deteriorating pipelines buried all over America. CNN’s Rene Marsh reports.Source: CNN”

=>North Dakota

Largest Leak In State History: North Dakota Pipeline Leaks Crude Oil, 3mn Gallons of Fracking Fluid


“…Published on Jan 23, 2015

http://www.undergroundworldnews.com
Dahboo7 On Zeekly: http://zeeklytv.com/user/Dahboo77

Nearly 3 million gallons of saltwater and an as yet unknown amount of crude oil have leaked from a northwest North Dakota pipeline into a creek that feeds into the Missouri River. Officials have called the leak the largest of its kind in state history.

The leak in the 4-inch saltwater collection line, owned by Summit Midstream Partners LP and operated by subsidiary Meadowlark Midstream Co., was discovered earlier this month and was reported to the state on January 7, according to Reuters.

Yet some of the brine made it to the Missouri River, the Williston Herald reported, and the state found “high readings” of contamination at the confluence of the Little Muddy and Missouri Rivers southeast of Williston, according to Karl Rockeman, the director of water quality at the Department of Health.

Williston sits in the middle of North Dakota’s oil boom, and the saltwater is said to be a byproduct of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking.

http://rt.com/usa/225671-north-dakota…..”
Weather Affects Oil Pipeline Spill Cleanup in North Dakota By james macpherson, associated press BISMARCK, N.D. — Dec 8, 2016, 5:32 PM ET abcnews.go.com
“..A company with a history of oil field-related spills in North Dakota and Montana is being hampered by winter weather in its cleanup of a “significant” pipeline break that leaked crude oil into a tributary of the Little Missouri River in western North Dakota, a regulator said Thursday.

Bill Suess, an environmental scientist with the North Dakota Health Department, said the Belle Fourche Pipeline Co. spill was discovered Monday by a landowner near Belfield. The cause of the leak is under investigation and the amount of the spill is unknown, in part because of recent blizzards and subzero temperatures throughout North Dakota, he said.

“Anytime you have cold temperatures, it’s going to hinder cleanup and the investigation,” Suess said.

He said the spill migrated about 2? miles from the spill site along Ash Coulee Creek, and it fouled an unknown amount of private and U.S. Forest Service land along the waterway. He said state and federal inspectors have been monitoring the spill and that it appeared to be contained. The creek was free-flowing when the spill occurred but has since frozen over.

The spill in the creek is about 20 miles upstream of the Little Missouri River. Suess said it did not appear that any of the oil reached the river and no drinking water sources were affected.
..”

=>South Dakota

Keystone pipeline leaks 210K gallons of oil in South Dakota Associated Press 12 hours ago (11.17.17) yahoo.com
“..AMHERST, S.D. (AP) — TransCanada Corp.’s Keystone pipeline leaked an estimated 210,000 gallons of oil onto agricultural land in northeastern South Dakota, the company and state regulators said Thursday, but state officials don’t believe the leak polluted any surface water bodies or drinking water systems.

Crews shut down the pipeline Thursday morning and activated emergency response procedures after a drop in pressure was detected resulting from the leak south of a pump station in Marshall County, TransCanada said in a statement. The cause was being investigated…

Keystone pipeline leak spills 210,000 gallons of oil in South Dakota Last Updated Nov 16, 2017 9:13 PM EST cbsnews.com
‘..AMHERST, S.D. — TransCanada Corp.’s Keystone pipeline has been shut down after it leaked an estimated 210,000 gallons of oil in northeastern South Dakota, the company and state regulators reported Thursday.

Crews shut down the pipeline Thursday morning and activated emergency response procedures after a drop in pressure was detected resulting from the leak south of a pump station in Marshall County, TransCanada said in a statement. The cause was being investigated.

Late Thursday evening, TransCanada tweeted a picture that apparently shows the “approximate release area” as seen from an aerial patrol of the company’s initial response:

Image of Amherst incident taken earlier today by aerial patrol as part of our initial response. For more updates, visit https://t.co/8yWI1Oq2EM pic.twitter.com/uRNtYUdVjL
— TransCanada (@TransCanada) November 16, 2017

Officials don’t believe the leak affected any surface water bodies or threatened any drinking water systems, said Brian Walsh, an environmental scientist manager at the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, which has dispatched a staff member to the site.

“Ultimately, the cleanup responsibility lies with TransCanada, and they’ll have to clean it up in compliance with our state regulations,” Walsh said.

The pipeline transports crude from Alberta, Canada, to refineries in Illinois and Oklahoma, passing through the eastern Dakotas, Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. It can handle nearly 600,000 barrels, or about 23 million gallons, daily. TransCanada says on its website that the company has safely transported more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil, or about 63 billion gallons, through the system since operations began in 2010…”

US Has Had 220 Oil Pipeline Leaks This Year, And No One Is Paying Attention


“Published on Oct 29, 2016

The amount of oil being spilled on American soil is increasing at an alarming rate, but the corporate-controlled media has said almost nothing about it, and our elected officials are doing even less about this growing problem. SUBSCRIBE to Ring Of Fire: https://www.youtube.com/user/golefttv”

Find Pipelines Near You (see map) pipelineawareness.org
“Pipelines are all around you. More than two million miles of pipelines cross the United States connecting to other pipelines, manufacturing and refining centers, distribution hubs, businesses and your home. Pipelines safely transport natural gas, crude oil, gasoline, propane, ethanol and other energy products every day…

Trains

Crude Oil Transportation: A Timeline of Failure riverkeeper.org
Crude Oil by Rail

“In 2013, far more oil was spilled from rail accidents in the U.S.—more than 1.15 million gallons—than in the previous four decades, combined. Read about it…”
Oil Train Spills Hit Record Level in 2014 by Tony Dokoupil
News Jan 26 2015, 8:49 am ET nbcnews.com
“..American oil trains spilled crude oil more often in 2014 than in any year since the federal government began collecting data on such incidents in 1975, an NBC News analysis shows.

The record number of spills sparked a fireball in Virginia, polluted groundwater in Colorado, and destroyed a building in Pennsylvania, causing at least $5 million in damages and the loss of 57,000 gallons of crude oil.

By volume, that’s dramatically less crude than trains spilled in 2013, when major derailments in Alabama and North Dakota leached a record 1.4 million gallons — more than was lost in the prior 40 years combined. But by frequency of spills, 2014 set a new high with 141 “unintentional releases,” according to data from the federal Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA). By comparison, between 1975 and 2012, U.S. railroads averaged just 25 spills a year. ..”

Why Is Transporting Oil So Dangerous?


“Published on Mar 2, 2015

Subscribe! http://bitly.com/1iLOHml

Transporting oil by rail has come under scrutiny after the recent explosions near residential communities in Virginia and Ontario. So, how dangerous are oil trains? “

-Maps

Crude-by-Rail Across America earthjustice.org
“..Oil trains are not subject to the same strict routing requirements placed on other hazardous materials; trains carrying explosive crude are permitted to pass directly through cities—with tragic results. In the absence of more protective regulations, communities across the country are beginning to take matters in their own hands…”

Misc.

Pick Your Poison For Crude — Pipeline, Rail, Truck Or Boat James Conca , Contributor Apr 26, 2014 @ 10:35 AM 124,381 views forbes.com
“..The short answer is: truck worse than train worse than pipeline worse than boat (Oilprice.com). But that’s only for human death and property destruction. For the normalized amount of oil spilled, it’s truck worse than pipeline worse than rail worse than boat (Congressional Research Service). Different yet again is for environmental impact (dominated by impact to aquatic habitat), where it’s boat worse than pipeline worse than truck worse than rail…”

Solutions?

Better Ways to Stop Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks Posted on March 9, 2015 by Andrew Campbell energyathaas.wordpress.com
“.. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), which sets rates for the country’s interstate natural gas pipelines, launched a new docket last November. FERC proposes to allow pipelines to recover capital expenditures made to enhance reliability, improve safety and meet environmental objectives. This would be allowed outside of the normal rate-setting process…

The rapidly falling cost of communicating sensors and cloud computing is enabling real-time measurement that was cost prohibitive in the past. This trend is called the “Internet of Things” or Industry 4.0, in the industrial context. Now it’s feasible to monitor natural gas pipelines and compressors at many locations on a real-time basis….

The Environmental Defense Fund and Google have launched an initiative that demonstrates one new approach to leak monitoring. In city after city they are conducting drive-by leak surveys using car-mounted measurement devices. Street View meets leak detection. In the sample maps below, each circle signifies a leak, with darker colors representing bigger leaks. The incidence of leaks varies significantly between and within cities….”
Oil spills Solutions, personal.psu.edu
“..According to EPA’s website the best way we can best avoid the environmental and economic effects of oil spills by preventing and containing them in the first place. For more than two decades, EPA’s Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures, or SPCC program, has worked at several hundred thousand oil storage facilities to prevent the discharge of all kinds of oil into the waters of the United States. EPA’s approach to preventing oil spills combines planning and enforcement measures. To prevent oil spills, EPA requires owners or operators of certain oil storage facilities to prepare and implement SPCC Plans that detail the facility’s spill prevention and control measures. EPA also enforces the oil spill liability and penalty provisions under the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, which provide incentives to facility owners/operators to take the necessary steps to prevent oil spills. EPA also conducts on-site facility inspections to ensure that facilities take adequate measures to prevent an accidental discharge…”
How to Prevent Deepwater Spills by Peter Fairley
June 10, 2010 technologyreview.com
Safety upgrades are critical but could mean higher prices for oil and gas.
“…One inherently safer option that many petroleum engineers are considering is bringing BOPs to the surface. In this scheme the BOP on the wellhead thousands of feet below the ocean surface is backed up by a second BOP on the drill rig that would be accessible for more regular inspection and testing. Doing so would mean hardening the risers that link the wellhead and the drill rig to handle extreme pressures…”

Learned anything new? Was there something else you know that you would like to contribute to this that was missed? Thoughts, suggestions, feedback, etc..?

Good News Automotive
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